Great Website Design Tips You Can Really Use

The most important thing to keep in mind when making a website, is to keep the site efficient and attractive. If you do not do this, your efforts will be for naught. It all returns to web page design. Website visitors like to go to professional looking sites that are easy to navigate. Give them what they want by using these tips.

Watch your color scheme on your site. Be sure that your written content is clearly visible and easy to read against the background you choose. The text opted for should be dark in color, with a lighter color used for your backgrounds. Don’t be afraid to ask a friend or colleague for their opinion of the color scheme.

When designing webpages it is important that you use the correct graphics. Remember, bitmap images are huge and usually don’t work well, PNGs work fine. Consider PNG files for non-photographic images, text buttons or screenshots that require over 256 colors. If not, use a GIF. Photos require JPEG to ensure high quality.

Let users cancel actions if they desire. Types of such actions would include registering an email, filling out forms, or browsing your site for archives or topics. Forcing your user to complete an action they don’t wish to will ensure they never sign up for anything on your site again, nor are they likely to return at all.

Pay attention to color combinations in your design. Choose a font and color that will help your words stand out from the background. In general, you want to use a dark font color and a lighter background. If you can’t decide if the colors are right, ask someone you know for feedback.

Design your page so that previously entered information is saved and automatically used to fill in informational boxes. Make it easy on your visitors by keeping information that they may need for other forms or orders. Creating transferable form information will make the overall process simpler and quicker for your visitors, and they will be happy with the time you have saved them.

Let your users have the option of canceling any action if they wish to do so. This could be a form that they have been filling out, registering for newsletters or emails, or even browsing the website for certain topics or archives. Visitors do not appreciate not being able to cancel things that they are not interested in completing, and they may not wish to return to your site for future purchases.

If you are designing a very large site, you should always include search capabilities. People have become accustomed to search boxes being in the upper-right corner of the page, so put it there. These should let you at least search for one term, but it’s better if it allows multiple terms. Google and FreeFind both offer search functions for your website.

A simple way to increase your sites attractiveness is to make use of pictures you have taken. This makes your site more user-friendly. People will spend more time on your site looking around when they see pictures they want to click on.

Free software is great to start with when you’re getting into web design. Oftentimes, people erroneously believe that shareware is inefficient for certain tasks. However, there are many free programs designed to help you keep your website neat and current. With a little search effort on your part, the kinds of tools you need can be found, and for free.

File Sizes

Photoshop is a good program to use if you are a beggining web designer looking to manifest an attractive site. Photoshop and similar programs enable amateurs to design sites quickly. If you do not have a top program like Photoshop, it can make it hard and really time consuming to acquire enough knowledge to build a really nice site, quickly.

While you want to keep the aesthetics of your site in mind, you also need to make every effort to keep your file sizes to a minimum. This is because the speed of your website loading is directly influenced by the file sizes. You want your site to load as quick as possible. You must also be aware that everyone doesn’t have a high speed connection to the Internet. Check your site, and make sure that it can load quickly even with a slow dial-up internet connection.

Include text content on your link page. This will let your visitors know what they’re going to click on. If there are links on your page without text content, they could accidentally click the link through a keyboard shortcut.

File sizes affect the speed with which your website loads. You can control file size by paying attention to file types. GIFs and JPGs are your best choice for graphics. PNG and BMP files are probably better for web graphics, but they also use much more disk space. Make your files manageable to keep loading times down for visitors.

It’s vital that you test your web designs on multiple browsers. Because different browsers render websites differently, the visitor may not have the experience you intended. There are various resources to find which browsers are more popular. Make sure your website works in Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, Safari and the major mobile browsers.

Test early and test often to maintain accuracy. As soon as you have something built to test, it is vital to keep checking what users will actually experience. Continue to test and make improvements throughout the life of your website.

You have a wealth of information online you can refer to when you’re stuck in a site design jam. There are thousands of websites you can use to garner inspiration. Find one you like, figure out why it’s appealing, and decide what you can use and improve in your own. However, don’t just take what you see and put it on your pages. You should always improve anything ideas you borrow.

When you have more than one website idea, reserve the domain names at the same time. Show your creativity and choose what you want, but you must reserve it as soon as you can to have it for later. There are a lot of people in the world, and someone is bound to come up with a similar idea. As if everyone is connected in some way.

When you’re just starting out with designing a website, it’s important to practice. You want to do this because you want to make sure all of the knowledge that you’re learning is easy for you to apply. You don’t need to think that you’ve leaned something only to find out that you didn’t fully grasp it.

Development platforms build the code for you, however, they really are not as dependable as a regular text editor. When you use a platform, in theory it will provide workable code to produce the website features and appearance that you want. However, if you prefer to lessen any errors while getting hands-on experience, using classic text editors should be your choice.

Go ahead and invest into some books, that can assist you with learning how to become a successful web designer. First, read books for the beginner and advance from there.

Even if you see designs you are attracted to on other sites, it is better to be creative on your own. Make up your own designs or make other designs you have seen into your own. Implementing this technique will help you to create a quality website.

When you design a site, keep your target audience in mind, ask, or poll people to see what they’d like to see on your site. This provides you better focus with site design and a better understanding of what features to include. Also, by following the advice, you know you are providing something of value to the users.

Ask your friends what they know about website creation, in case there is something you’ve overlooked learning. Knowing as much as possible about every facet of website design is key to giving yourself the ability to design great websites.

Even after you have your web page launched and operation, you will need to tweak it occasionally. Keep as active as possible with your website. You don’t have to constantly update it, but you must do regular updates. If you advertise events or limited offers, make sure this type of content is up to date. There is more to updating a website than there is to updating a blog. It does require you to work at it.

Find out how effective your site’s design is with usability tests. Can your users find what they want? So ask multiple people in different location, using different browsers to give your website a visit; the task should be easy to complete. They can give you valuable feedback if they encounter an issues.

Think like an artist when designing your website. Take inspiration from all areas of your life, and allow it to shine through in your work. Take down notes on a new idea as soon as it comes to you. If you’re at a restaurant, use your napkin for notepaper. If you’re at work when inspiration strikes, leave yourself a voicemail so that you don’t forget your great idea.

Avoid the use of CAPTCHAs whenever you can. Some captchas require the user to jump through hoops just to access content. Only the most dedicated and interested visitors will continue through an unnecessary captchas; many will simply abandon the page.

Watch over your site so that you can get rid of spam right away. Blog and forum owners will benefit most from this. Good site design includes removal of negative items.

If you want to host any type of video on your website, make sure to first check with the web host to be positive that this is something that is allowed. Some hosts do not permit videos to be hosted on their servers. The FLV files are big and take up a lot of space on servers, so check to make sure it is allowed before wasting your efforts.

Install a site map. A website map serves two functions. For starters, visitors are able to better navigate your site with one. This allows visitors to find links to topics on your site that interest them on one single page. Site maps are also great if you’re into search engine optimization. It easier for the search engines to find and “crawl” your site.

Use copy and paste to help you create multiple webpages for your website. Do not waste time by creating original HTML code for each page on your site. Instead, duplicate the main code, make any necessary adjustments, then save the code as a unique file. Keep a master copy of your code and adapt it to your different pages.

Become a cascading style sheet (CSS) expert. HTML is important, but CSS is where the real designing comes from. Cascading style sheets create consistency in your formatting. You can also switch things up on the page quickly and easily. If you are interested in making the font color red on each page, simply change a single line of code.

Site Map

If you don’t have a lot of money for custom graphics for your website, use stock images that are free to use. These pictures are easy to find online and are usually high-quality. Use the money that you saved in other areas.

Utilize a website map when you design your site. There are two purposes of a site map. First, it makes it so visitors can better understand your website. They can help them find what they seek and what you offer in a single place. A site map can be very beneficial for your site. It easier for the search engines to find and “crawl” your site.

While reviewing your newly designed site, make sure that you have used techniques that lead to success including any necessary images or information the customer has requested or you need to promote your goods and services. Some like the BBB will inform your customers your business can be trusted.

Most people are usually not picky. However, a slow site that is not attractive will not please visitors. By using the tips about website creation that you have just learned, you may prevent the mistakes that many amateur web designers make.

Use key phrases throughout your site as you design it. Keep in mind that outstanding web design focuses on persuasion as well as art. You need to understand who you are developing this website for. Find words and phrases that your readers can absorb and apply to their own life. Find three-five keywords and use them in your website design.

Web design and webdesign

Anyone Can Get Into Blogging With Good Advice

TIP! Always be available to your readers. Try communicating frequently, and make it a habit.

It can be somewhat difficult to start a blog. Anyone can start a blog, but separating yours from the rest of the pack is not always easy. Pay close attention to this article, if you would like to make your blog stand out.

TIP! Search engine optimization is just as critical for a blog as it is any web site. Because your primary goal is increasing your readership, it is important that your blog shows up in the search results when potential readers look for a topic about which you write.

Do not copy another person’s work. The reputation that you make for yourself online carries over into every aspect of your life, including any day job and offline friendships. Plagiarism on your blog will have serious consequences in all aspects of your life. You don’t need to be professional, simply passionate about a subject will garner a quality blog.

TIP! Make frequent blog posts. It is common for bloggers to begin blogging as though they were going to a fire and then, over time, to gradually fall into blogging less and less frequently.

As you develop your blog, think about buying a domain name of your own instead of utilizing free sites. It does not cost much, and will make you seem more professional. Visitors will be more likely to recall your website, particularly if the title contains your business’ name or something similar.

TIP! Update your site regularly. In order to increase your site traffic and maintain it properly, you must always post new content.

Make your blog stand out from the competition. Readers will be attracted to unique content. Information which is tough to find has the same effect. Try writing a blog about an unusual experience or hobby. You can even provide detailed, specific information that readers who are into a particular topic long for. The point of this is to provide your readers with a reason to check you out when they are looking for information.

TIP! Have a difference to your blog that is not seen elsewhere. Readers flock to content that they can’t find anywhere else.

Be sincere and authentic in your blog. Do not seem to be a know-it-all. Demonstrate honesty and transparency at all times. Do this always. Blogs are as unique as the individuals who create them. Reaching for perfection is probably a waste of time, so focus on improving your site instead. Never be afraid to admit that you have made a mistake, and never be afraid to reply to a reader who might have authoritative information to share with your other readers. You are a totally unique individual.

Social Media

TIP! Don’t let your posts become long and rambly. Get right to the point.

Use social media to promote your blog. Put links to your blog on each social media site and create pages for your blog on these sites, so that readers have a variety of methods for following your blog. Social media websites such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn can significantly increase the success of your blog, and enhance the recognition you receive as a writer. By making use of every available avenue of communication, you can stay connected to your loyal readers and attract new ones, too.

TIP! Be sure to use images when you’re making posts. It’s often said that a picture is worth 1000 words.

Now you are able to stand out from the crowd; it just requires work and time. Apply the tips here while building up your blog, and before long, you will have readers eagerly awaiting your next postings.

Professionel blogger

Need A Web Host? Use This Helpful Advice To Find One.

A hosting company can help you navigate any website-related issues you encounter. Nowadays, there are many hosts available for people who don’t understand tech too well. If you read this article fully, you will gain some knowledge about choices you should consider when signing with a web host.

Check the hosting site to find out what kind of sites they can offer. A lot of the time, free sites offer only static pages, which means you can’t add any custom language scripts. If you need to be able to do dynamic scripting, you may have to pay a web host for that service.

Trying to choose between dedicated and shared hosting? If you own a lot of content on your website, or have a lot of traffic, you need to find the right web host to suit your needs. It’s a wise idea to find a dedicated host.

The type and number of features offered may vary between hosts, so keep a keen eye open for differences. Make sure you are comparing apples to apples by selecting plans which are similar. For instance, one company’s low hosting price might rise once you add a certain feature, while another company has that feature in one of its packages for a low price.

Find out each potential web host’s uptime–the percentage of time the server is up and working correctly–and avoid web hosts that have a lot of outages. Companies with many outages generally make excuses, and show that they aren’t reliable, since they don’t do anything about them and don’t intend to. Frequent outages signify an unprofessional business. Don’t make commitments to these type of companies.

Shared or dedicated hosting, which is the better solution for you? If your website receives a great deal of traffic, shared hosting might cause problems. Therefore, you should probably search for dedicated hosts.

As you shop for prospective website hosting services, it is in your best interest to go with a company that is headquartered in your target audience’s country. For example, if your target market resides within Germany, it is in your best interest to select a provider that operates a data center from within the country’s borders.

Choosing a web host which is physically located in the same country as your visitors will boost the speed of your website dramatically. If your target audience is Americans, stick with a hosting provider that’s located in America.

Web Host

The amount of traffic you receive on your site can affect your hosting charges. Will it be a flat rate? A rate dependent on the amount of traffic you get?

When deciding on a web host, choose a provider that tracks your traffic statistics for you. You should add a visitor counter to your site, and compare it to the numbers your web host is giving you. You benefit from this information as you can tailor your site to suit your visitor base.

Do not believe in a host advertising any kind of unlimited services. For instance, there could be limited file types allowed for hosts that offer some unlimited limitations. Claims of unlimited bandwidth can also sometimes be considered tiered payment plans. Get all the information that pertains to these plans, and never assume unlimited really means unlimited.

When looking at web hosting packages with unlimited services, proceed with caution. For example, when a web host offers unlimited disk space, there might be limitations on the file types that are allowed. Also, infinite bandwidth might be considered to be tiered payment plans. Do your best to get as much as information as you can with regard to these kinds of plans. Don’t assume that unlimited actually means unlimited.

Don’t take a potential web host at their word. After visiting their site, do more research. Look for customer reviews and make sure they are located on an independent site and not an affiliate of the company. Independent customer reviews will be a good indicator of quality.

Each web hosting service has its pros and cons. Apply the tips in the article above to help you choose the right company with the right features. If you compare web hosts before signing up, you’ll be able to find a plan which meets all of your hosting needs at a price that falls within your budget. Goal!

Many web hosting services actually rely on an even larger host. These types of companies purchase a bulk quantity and then resell it. See where your site will be hosted and see that you get the lowest price in between them.


How To Be Successful In The Writing A Blog World

TIP! Comment on related blogs as a means of attracting new interest in yours. Keep a folder in Google Reader for your competition and check it daily.

You are probably very familiar with writing a blog. Blogs are webpages that let you post interesting content about any topic that you find interesting. It’s mostly a personal endeavor more in line with social media material, but also serves the purpose of promoting business ideas and commercial marketing. If writing a blog regularly is something which interests you, read on for further information.

TIP! You should purchase your own domain site instead of using a free hosting site when developing your blog. You will increase the professional appearance of your blog for the small fee.

Comment on other’s blogs in order to generate more interest in yours. You should consider creating a separate folder in Google Reader and using it to keep up with the selection of blogs that you choose to follow. Comment on these regularly, every time you wish to say something.

TIP! Use different images in your posts. Pictures are attention grabbing and are an easy way to convey your ideas without words.

Purchase a domain name instead of using a site that is free. Domain names are inexpensive and they will give your blog a more professional image. Choose something memorable and relative to the content.

TIP! Update your blog frequently with new content to keep your readers coming back for more. As a very general rule of thumb, a daily post is the minimum for a good blog.

Do not let blog posting completely take over your life. Failing to give yourself some time off and away from the computer will lead to dangerous burnout. Take scheduled walks, call family and friends or just curl up away from the computer and read for a while. A timeout lets you return to your blog with a fresh approach to content.

TIP! Read all of your comment,s and try to respond to any feedback given without taking it too personally. There is always a critic, no matter the subject.

You want to make sure you are authentic. Avoid the appearance of arrogance. Be honest, be transparent, and be available to your readers. Always remember to do this. Remember that writing a blog is primarily an expression of a person’s personality. Don’t strive for perfection; this is a waste of time. Just strive to improve yourself through your blogs. Never be afraid to admit that you have made a mistake, and never be afraid to reply to a reader who might have authoritative information to share with your other readers. You have a specific point of view that is all your own.

TIP! Be patient when trying to build a readership. It will take some time for people to discover your blog.

Always reply to comments you receive, and do not take them personally. No matter what you write about, people will criticize you occasionally. Constructive criticism can be a valuable tool, and if you use it effectively, you will improve your blog. Try to find a polite response to criticisms that are negative and do not dwell on it. This shows maturity and helps to increase your readership.

Social Media

TIP! Keep in mind that a blog is a much more informal medium than certain other types of websites. A blog should be social and fun.

Provide easy access to social media links on your blog, so your viewers can follow you. Using social media sites such as LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook can boost author recognition and your success. Such sites give you invaluable access to a virtually infinite audience.

TIP! Do not simply try to write paragraphs and paragraphs of general content. Conduct plenty of research so that your blog postings are all informative and intelligent.

The most successful blogs are those that capture a reader’s attention. Your blog will be more readable and draw in many viewers with these tips. While some people update their blog for fun, some are able to make a living from their blog. The most important thing is to have fun.

Professionel blogger

Proven Web Page Design Tips That Anyone Can Follow

When you are not knowledgeable about website design, it can seem intimidating. Learning more will help you to gain confidence when you embark on creating your site. Using these tips, you can make attractive and effective website for every purpose.

Ensure your website can pass the NoScript test. Download the NoScript extension in Firefox and test it on your site to see if it is still readable. Certain content cannot be read unless scripts are present. A blank site without scripts can create big problems.

Programs are available to assist you in creating an attractive website. These websites will help you to create elements for your site that you may not otherwise do without them, and they will help you to do it much more quickly. Let’s face it, a boring, drab site simply drives traffic away and that is not what we want to do.

Regular newsletters attract repeat website visitors. When a customer can get frequently updated on things, they will keep visiting to see more. Put a form for registration on a sidebar or somewhere visible, yet not interfering with the page’s purpose. Make sure you only send out the letter to those that have explicitly requested to view it.

Keep your topics separated. Separate topics to give each one its own page. This helps your visitors navigate your site more seamlessly, and it helps search engines understand what you have to offer better. This translates to higher rankings.

Don’t use frames if you want to optimize your website. Although users like pages that include frames, the information inside does not show up in search engines. If there is important information that you want the search engines to see on your website, never put it within a frame. When you don’t have a high ranking, then your visitor count will be lower.

No matter how flashy your website is, it is vital that you keep the sizes of your website’s files small. File sizes are directly responsible for how quickly a website loads. You want your website to load very quickly when potential clients visit. Remember that not all visitors will have a high speed connection to the Internet. Test your site to make sure that it loads up quickly, even when accessed on a dial up connection.

Placing ALT tags when using images on the site is important. This allows everyone to gain access to the intended information. Should your images serve as links, these ALT tags will offer a means to describe the link’s behavior also. ALT tags are also used by crawlers and this can boost your ranking.

Use easy to maintain navigation throughout your site. Placing your navigation links in easy to find locations will help you keep visitors on your website. In order for visitors to have a pleasant experience, it needs to be easy to navigate and clean-looking.

Make sure you are prioritizing your user’s needs. As a web designer, you should always focus on the viewer’s needs. Things such as interactivity, accessibility, user experience and usability are all very important. These are primary considerations you must factor in. Always view the design from the vistor’s perspective.

Contain Text

Whatever file types you use for the graphics on your site go hand-in-hand with file size. This plays a major role in how fast your site loads. Choose GIFs and JPEGs; instead of other types of graphic files. You want to avoid PNG or BMP files as these take up too much memory space. Try converting images files to smaller sizes to make sure everyone that visits your site has a good experience.

When creating pages that have links, be sure the links contain text content. That will help the reader know what they’re clicking on. If links on your site do not contain text, visitors may accidentally select them using keyboard shortcuts.

Even if you have decided to invest a lot of money into your website, hosting a site yourself isn’t the best idea. Designing the site yourself is a good idea, but when it comes to hosting, it’s usually better to use a third party. This will free up your time to concentrate on more important things.

Explore your website with different browsers and computer systems. Each browser program handles sites in a different way, and these variations can alter the user’s interface significantly. A little bit of research will help you decide which browsers are used most often, at that time. Perform browser tests on your website, and include the mobile web browsers that are most popular.

Buy books that describe popular web design techniques. Make sure that you start out with books that are around your web design level. You want to progress, but not skip any information along the way, so you can be great at designing websites.

Use fonts that are both easy to read, and professional. You can tell if a site is professional just by viewing their fonts. Comic Sans and fancier fonts may not be available on a lot of your users’ computers, so don’t use them. Unique fonts tend to default on most user’s computers if it’s not available to them. This can look worse.

It is not always true that you need to pay for advice on creating a great website. You can invest in books if feel that’s the only way you learn. While there are many helpful materials. However, all this information can be found free. Books you pay for aren’t going to tell you any more than books that were free.

User-friendly website development programs, known as development platforms, can make building websites easier, but they are just not as trustworthy as hand-written code. Utilizing a platform allows you to focus on the design aspects of the website, while having the platform handle the technical aspect of creating the code. In order to minimize platform-created errors and really learn the nuts and bolts of web design, you may want to consider editing your code directly using a simple text editor.

A good reason to stay on top of your site maintenance is so you can always delete negative content and spam if it happens to appear on your site. This is definitely key if you’re operating a blog or a forum. The quality site designers are consistently removing trash from their sites to improve visitor experience.

When building a website, enlist the help of Adobe Dreamweaver. It is ideal for beginner builders and easy to learn. You can add many different features, create various templates and layouts, and test how your site will look once it’s loaded onto a permanent server.

Don’t use Flash on your site. Flash may look exciting, but it doesn’t function properly on all types of computers. Also, many computers, especially tablet computers like the iPad, do not even have Flash capabilities. Not being able to see elements of your site might cause visitors to leave and never return.

When starting, only post small amounts of content. You don’t need a lot of stuff that will overwhelm you and confuse visitors when they arrive on your site.

Dedicate some time to working on and updating your website every day. Make sure that you schedule out larger blocks of time during your day, so that you actually make some real progress rather than trying to work on tidbits here and there. Working hard creates focus, which means that you will create a better site and therefore improve your profit margin.

Offer a sitewide search option at the top of every page. The simple, speedy access this capability gives to visitors will put the information they’re looking for at their fingertips, and make the site highly user-friendly. The ease with which these can be used, and the benefit to your visitors, make any effort worthwhile, to put them in place.

Design error pages that are helpful to your visitors. When someone usually clicks on a broken link, it is one that’s been moved, and the generic error code doesn’t get them back on track. Design your error pages so that you give a visitor a reason they may have gotten that error, along with a link to your home page so that they remain on your site.

Remember literacy levels as you write your content. Not everyone is a rouge scholar. When expanding your audience, you want to develop content they understand.

Know what to do with white space. White space is the phrase used for any blank space found throughout your website. Visibility is key when it comes to the internet, so be sure to avoid cluttering the screen with words and graphics. This will lead to a higher comfort level on your site.

When you are wanting to host particular videos on your website, you are going to have to check with that particular web host so you are able to know if it’s allowed or not. Many hosts do not allow for video hosting on the servers they provide. FLV files occupy a lot of room on servers, so make sure you’re allowed before you waste a lot of time.

Any website owner needs to get suitable feedback on the design of their site. Others may be able to point out flaws or challenging navigation on your site. Try asking a select group of your website visitors to go through your website to report to you what they loved and disliked about it.

Having blank space in your site is a good design feature, so do not make the mistake in thinking that you website should be packed all the way. When you have open space on your website, your visitors can see what you have on offer and read your text with ease. This can only benefit you and them.

The logo you use for your site can make a huge difference. You have to be sure it shows what you can do while keeping you separate from the people you compete with. If you are having difficulty creating a logo, enlist the help of an expert.

Place the most important information in the upper left-hand corner of your site. People typically read from the left to the right, so anything high and far left is going to be the first thing that catches their eye.

Incorporate human personality into site design. Look for ways to include corporate logos and images, testimony from clients, and media quotes. Including these items on your site is a welcome addition. You will also be solidifying your expertise to the visitor, which can help in building a stronger, more loyal base of customers.

A good way to figure out if your website is doing well is check out the site’s statistics whenever you do an update. This is important because you should stay abreast of which pages your visitors visit the most and where your customers are located. This can help you update material that will keep them interested and returning.

Incorporate a link directly to your blog when you are creating your website. The information included on your blog must show how knowledgeable you are about the subject. Make sure that your blog is easy to navigate and read, so that visitors can get all they need to out of it.

Make your interface tools as easy-to-use and as consistent as possible. Clickable text should be underlined. Once it has been clicked, it should change colors. Your visitors will spend more time on your site if it is easy to understand and use.

Keep learning! There are new ideas a practices that appear on a daily basis and it is hard to keep up with them all. Spend some time regularly learning about the advancements in the field.

Error Pages

Don’t hire anyone you are related to when you are designing your website and seeking out a professional. Don’t hire relatives or friends to design your website. If they do not do a good enough job, firing them can prove more difficult than firing someone you do not know as well.

Make error pages look creative and informative. A confusing error may pop up when a visitor clicks on a broken link. Try designing your own error pages to provide visitors with the reason they received an error and a link back to the homepage to remain on the site.

Know that you can get your inspiration from anywhere. It could be from a film, a conversation with a colleague, or some other thing, but you are sure to have no shortage of ideas.

Website creation should no longer be a mystery for you. It is simpler to design your website when you are knowledgeable about doing so. If you use what you’ve learned above, you should be able to create a great website very quickly.

If your web design is going to include displays of large documents, make use of PDFs as opposed to Word documents. The reason is because programs like Adobe Acrobat Reader are considered universal, and they can be read no matter the platform the viewer uses.

Web design and webdesign

Struggling To Find A Good Web Host? Follow This Advice!

Do you frequently find yourself feeling dissatisfied with the amount you pay for hosting service? Web hosting does not have to be pricey and you should do what you can to get a better deal that also fulfills your needs. These tips below can help.

Be sure that you register your domain’s name using a different company than your web host in case there’s some kind of disagreement between the two of you. This way you can still have the domain name, and can put the site on a different server. If you register your domain through your host, they have control of it.

All good web hosts offer a variety of add-ons to their plans, but the types of features will differ between companies. When you are analyzing the different providers, compare the different levels of service so you know you are getting the right features you require. For instance, you may find that the lowest-priced provider no longer holds a cost advantage and you must choose a higher-priced package for the feature that you need.

When determining your needs for web hosting, be sure to choose a host that is geographically close to your target demographic. If you’re targeting folks in the UK, your hosting plan’s data center should also be there.

Identify what services you must have before you begin your search. Figure out everything you must have, would like to have, and can life without and then choose the host which provides the most important items. Creating this kind of list will assist you from making a decision just on a single factor, such as the price, instead of discovering the very best deal possible.

Create a list of your needs ranked by importance before you start your web host research. If you know what your wants are in advance, you can check off whether the prospective host offers what you need. With this list prepared and handy, you can make a more informed decision based on your overall requirements, not simply on one factor, such as pricing.

Free Hosting

Are you stuck between choosing between a free hosting service and a paid provider? One thing that many free web hosts do not provide is content backup. This means you’ll need to make your own arrangement for backing up your site. So, if any of your information disappears, you have no recourse.

Are you considering putting your new website onto a free hosting service? There are many disadvantages that come along with the benefits of free hosting services, including lack of backup services, so make sure you are creating your own site backups. If you choose not to do this, a problem with the site could result in substantial data loss.

Your web hosting provider should offer packages that allow your site to increase in size without switching providers. An individual HTML page does not take a lot of space, but if you decide to add pictures or even videos, you will quickly need more space. You should have plenty of space for development, if you have 100MB of available storage space.

When selecting a web host, figure out which one will give you in-depth information and data about how many visitors are accessing your site. A good way to double-check the traffic numbers provided by your hosting service is to install a visitor counter on your landing page. When you run an online business, this data will help you customize your strategy in reaching out to your audience.

If you want to save some money, you can try using one of the free web hosts. The drawbacks to this kind of hosting includes limited server space, and ads being placed on your site. On the other hand, commercial or security-sensitive sites are best left to paid web hosting.

When you are selecting a web host, it is best to pick one that has won multiple hosting awards. This will give you a good idea of how efficient their service is. While these awards are sometimes fictitious, most sites use legitimate ones that are achieved through the site’s users casting a vote for that site to win. A hosting provider with numerous awards is a company that you likely want to research further!

Never select free web hosts simply because they’re free. One way free sites make money is showing advertising on their clients’ websites. The hosting company, not you, chooses the ads and ad categories to display. Random ads on a site can make it appear unprofessional.

You must know how to find web hosts that may give you similar or better services at the price that works for you. Having a quality web host is essential in order to run a good online business, but that doesn’t mean that it has to cost a fortune. The advice you have learned here can be used to find the ideal web hosting company for you or your business.

Some web hosts rely on another major server. Those companies buy large quantities of server space, and then rent it out at a premium to small sites. Find out the true location of your host and then shop around to make sure you negotiate the best price offered for using that server.


Simple Tips For Helping The Unexperienced Blogger

TIP! Be certain that your blog takes advantage of search engine optimization. Your blog needs this in order to appear in search results and be seen by readers.

Writing A Blog holds a certain appeal to it, as most people have something on their mind they would like to discuss. Everyone has a natural desire to share a message with everyone, but it can be difficult to figure out how to do that. This article can help you to accomplish your running a blog goals.

TIP! Make frequent blog posts. A common error that bloggers make is that they start a blog but post infrequent updates.

Try to be there for your readers constantly. You should remember that your blog is important to many readers so address their comments regularly. If your readers feel like they can rely on you, then they will be more consistent in their own commitment to your blog. When you have run dry of motivation for your blog, remember that others besides yourself could be disappointed.

TIP! You should purchase your own domain site instead of using a free hosting site when developing your blog. It does not cost much, and will make you seem more professional.

Use good search engine optimization techniques when creating your blog. The more you understand SEO, the higher your rank in searches, and the more you can increase traffic to your blog. Keywords should be contained within the title, and within the blog article itself, if the reader numbers are to be increased.

TIP! Make sure your blog stands apart from the competition. Readers will be attracted to unique content.

Owning your domain name, instead of taking advantage of a free site, can serve to your advantage. Acquiring a domain name is inexpensive and will ensure a professional appearance. That will also be simpler for people to keep in mind; this is especially true if you use relevant wording for your title, or use your company’s name.

TIP! Ask other expert bloggers in your niche to trade guest posts with you. This is a great way to increase the quality of your own blog and generate excellent content.

Update your blog frequently with new content to keep your readers coming back for more. Some of the best blogs update at least once daily. A smart step to prepare for an aggressive posting schedule like this is building up a backlog of two weeks’ worth of posts before you start blog posting. Then you can use one from this backlog of posts for the days you can’t seem to come up with anything to say. This can help to provide you with interesting content to post on days or weeks when you’re not feeling quite as motivated to write.

TIP! Maintaining a healthy blog site is important. This means ensuring that maintenance is being performed and that you’re updating the blog to keep it current.

Are you ready to share what’s on your mind? Everyone has some thought or experience they want to share with others. However, there are many important choices that have to be made in determining the best way to communicate that information. The information contained here was designed to assist you in effectively communicating your thoughts, so that you can make your blog all that you want it to be.

Professionel blogger

Web Page Design Tips To Build A Better Site

Are you interested in website design and hope it will help you make money? If so, it’s important to learn as much as possible about it. Continue reading to learn how to get started.

Use graphics that are right for your website. Remember, bitmap images are huge and usually don’t work well, PNGs work fine. PNG is the right choice for non-photo images, such as text buttons and screen shots. If an image has in excess of 256 colors choose PNG. If it does not, GIF is another option. JPEGs are ideal for photographs.

Use a fixed-position navigation format for easy navigation for your users. This keeps the site menus in place as visitors scroll through your site. Not only do visitors find this convenient, but so do internet marketers who have calls to action they want in place.

There are many web design forums that can give you tips and tricks on what to do. An Internet search on your computer will give you access to a lot of info.

If you’re creating a website, make sure you look at it in different browsers. If you just check it from you personal computer, what you see may be vastly different from what others see. Research the different browsers that are popular and design your site accordingly. In addition, ask friends and family to check out the site, too. You never know if another operating system makes a difference.

Stay away from lots of graphics on your website. While they help to keep a visitor’s interest, they can also make a site look cluttered and push visitors away. You need to not use graphics to decorate things, you need to be sure they’re making your site better. Also, including the “right” number of images makes it easier to navigate the site.

Before publishing your website, check it over carefully for any broken links. Visitors do not like to click a link only to access an error page. You can do this manually or run a software program if you like.

Give some thought to the background of your website. While some websites utilize moving GIF backgrounds, opt for simple background since these moving backgrounds can make text hard to read. Choose a background that complements your site instead, and visitors will easily understand they message you want to convey.

Be very careful to remove outdated content from your site. You will come across as undependable or an amateur if you have information on events that have long passed. Internet users want to have access to the latest information and read websites with regular updates. Review, update and delete content as a matter of course.

Do your best to store any personal information of your users so that they don’t have to enter it over and over again on your site. Make it easy on your visitors by keeping information that they may need for other forms or orders. Developing “sticky” data like this streamlines the user experience, and your visitors will likely appreciate the convenience.

Be conscious of your background. Some sites have moving GIF backgrounds, which can be great at times, but can make your text difficult to read at other times. In order to preserve your website’s focus, and make it easy for your visitors to comprehend, you should choose a background image that harmonizes well with your site instead of clashing with it.

Use a well known software program that is known for getting the job done to help create a professional looking website. Even without professional training, a web designer with a good grasp of Photoshop can turn out attractive, useful websites very quickly. Without a useful photo-editing program, you may have difficulty creating attractive, crisp content.

All links must have text content. Visitors can easily see links that provide content. If links on your site do not contain text, visitors may accidentally select them using keyboard shortcuts.

Having problems with web design? Know that you can get some ideas off the Internet. There are literally millions of websites that you can browse to find the inspiration that you need. Look for a website that is appealing and decide on the factors that make it appealing. Be sure not to plagiarize ideas, of course. You must also improve upon them.

A visitor counter does not add to the appearance of your website. Take it off of your site if you want to look contemporary. Get rid of visitor counters and encourage social media interaction instead.

For creating your own website, try using Adobe Dreamweaver. Even beginners can easily understand how to use this program. It is feature rich, with lots of layouts and templates. It can also help with testing the site so you know how it will look once on the server.

Development platforms make the code for you, however, there are some that aren’t as trustworthy as the classic text editors. Site features are designed within the platform, and then the generated code is pasted in. However, if you’re wanting to minimize errors and have an excellent experience, you need to utilize a text editor.

Speak with people you know just to see if you missed something when you learned things like Dreamweaver, Photoshop or HTML. You want to be sure that all the things you have learned so far has been retained in memory, as you never want to be designing a site and then all of a sudden become confused and lost.

For creating your own website, consider using Adobe Dreamweaver. This program is very user friendly, even for beginners. You will be able to add features, use layouts and templates, and see how your website will look after it is uploaded.

Try to begin your site with minimal content. This helps build a niche and gets them focused on whatever message you are delivering instead of spending wasted time jumping from page to page looking for what interests them. Over time, the amount of content will accumulate alongside your network traffic, which makes things less confusing for everyone.

Perhaps you have heard about software like Photoshop and how you can create amazing designs with them. Even still, many people don’t know anything about dreamweaver and the benefits it can offer to web designers. Check this program out for yourself.

Try not to steer consumers on your website into different places other than what they are presently interested in. You don’t want to suddently have a survey appear before them or promotions that they have to click on in order to go further. When people do this the visitors tend to close the browser and simply look elsewhere and you would too. Think about a time you visited a site to pay a bill and some chat or tell us what you think box takes over. You can’t stand it.

Research is crucial when designing a website. Try to figure out what your target audience wants to see. Figure out ways to reach this essential group. It will improve your site design.

Consider the security of your site. Purchase a SSL certificate if you handle payments or other person information. Your host may have additional security features.

You can get ideas from other websites, but incorporate them into a vision all your own. You can improve upon ideas you’ve seen used on other websites, but you should also develop your own website designs. Your website design work will be more effective and more memorable if you remember to keep it creative.

Having blank space in your site is a good design feature, so do not make the mistake in thinking that you website should be packed all the way. Eliminating clutter will let your customers have an easier experience in navigating your website, and will let them relax and enjoy the experience.

Place graphics on your website to help improve your site’s entertainment. You want to do things like wrap texts around images so that your site doesn’t look so bland. If your site looks professional, people will come back.

Try not to utilize Flash when developing your website. Flash may seem high-tech and splashy, but it might cause a visitor’s computer to load slowly and lag. There are many tablets and phones that are not Flash enabled, and if people are using them to view your site, it can ruin their experience, and make them not come back again.

Remember that the process of designing your website continues even after your site goes live. Keeping on top of your website will help you to ensure it’s always current. While you don’t need to do something all the time, it will need to be updated on a regular basis. This is especially important if you will be hosting videos or dealing with current events. Remember, website updating is much different than blog updating. It’s going to take some hard work and attention to detail.

You need a site map to help people navigate your site. There are two things that a sitemap does. First, it enables visitors to find their way around more easily. They help people find what they need and learn more about what you are offering. In addition, site maps are useful for SEO purposes. The search engines are able to crawl more easily.

The copy/paste feature is invaluable when it comes to creating a variety of pages for a subcategory within your website. Do not waste time by creating original HTML code for each page on your site. Instead, duplicate the main code, make any necessary adjustments, then save the code as a unique file. Having this master copy to work from will speed up the process of designing each new page!

Seek out offbeat inspiration as you design your own site. Take a look at magazines, TV commercials and even children’s artwork. You want to always be on the lookout for new inspiration because you may just stumble across something that will help your site become very popular with your visitors.

If you have important information for your website, post it on the top left. Many people start reading from the left to the right, so placing the most vital website elements in these areas will help readers see them before the rest of the site.

Most websites do well with a neutral background color. Textured backgrounds may be daunting to viewers, and if they are used improperly, they could make a design look unpolished. Use a neutral color such as white. Neutral colors have been shown to be the easiest backgrounds to read from.

Site Map

Including white space in your layout is a good web design practice. Quality content is paramount for a good web site, and using white space effectively directs the visitors eyes to the content you want them to notice. Don’t clutter your pages with useless information or images.

Incorporate a site map into your website design. There are two purposes of a site map. For starters, visitors are able to better navigate your site with one. One simple map shows them what is available and allows them to find what they’re seeking. Also, site maps are ideal for SEO purposes. The search engines are able to locate your site better this way.

Always include keywords in your website design that are relevant to your target market. You need to persuade visitors to spend their money or join your cause. You don’t want them to just think your site looks nice without taking any action. Understanding exactly who the site is being designed to attract is key. Are there certain words that will appeal and persuade this target audience? Find three-five keywords and use them in your website design.

Staying current with website design is no easy task. Websites are a great way for companies to get their information out there. And web designers are primed to make an excellent living while helping people along the way.

Make your life as a web designer simpler by finding a “cheat sheet” of common problems that you could run into, and their solutions. Gathering such resources can also lead you to outstanding advice for making site improvements.

To make a unique website, think outside of the box about where to get your inspiration for the site’s design. Television programs, artistic exhibits, even commercials are good sources of inspiration. You should stay vigilant and look around you throughout the day because you never know what might spark your next great idea.

It is essential to create realistic goals about how long each web design tasks will take to complete. When you try and meet deadlines that aren’t feasable your work becomes sloppy, and you don’t produce quality, which can hurt you in the long run. The best thing to do is be real, and give yourself a proper amount of time to complete your work the correct way.

You should now have a great start on the basics of website design and feel a little less confused by it. Now that you are more confident concerning web page design, you can use the suggestions presented here to help you reach both short-term and long-term goals.

It’s vital as a web designer to keep learning all you can about the field. There are new ideas a practices that appear on a daily basis and it is hard to keep up with them all. Be sure to remain up to date with regard to all the latest information in the field.

Web design and webdesign

The Web Medium

The Web Medium

While the human element may be the most critical aspect of Web-based communication, effective Web design is also extremely dependent on correct technical execution. If a site is poorly constructed or error ridden, visitors may lose sight of its message or function. To excel at Web design, practitioners should have a complete understanding of the elements of the Web medium.

The Web medium is composed of three major components

The Web medium is composed of three major components: client, server, and network. We will briefly overview each component and its subcomponents here in order to provide designers with a complete vocabulary of modern Web technology—and possibly provoke further study. We will also provide links about the activities of the various standards bodies, particularly the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which defines Web technologies, and the IETF, which sets many of the network, related protocols. Later chapters will focus on correct site execution and the effects of Web technologies on design decisions.

Core Web Technologies

The Web is implemented as a client-server system over a vast public network called the Internet. The three components of any client-server system are the client side, the server side, and the network. A visualization of the basic components that make up the Web is shown in Figure 3-1. We will now survey each of the primary components in turn, starting with the client side, which is primarily defined by the browser.

Web Browsers

The Web browser is the interpreter of our Web sites. It is very important to understand the Web browser being supported and what capabilities it has. The two most common browsers at the time of this book’s publication are Microsoft’s Internet Explorer (which accounts for the majority of browser users) and Netscape’s Communicator (Navigator). While these two browsers account for most users accessing public Web sites, there are numerous other versions of browsers in use.

The problem with published browser usage reports is that they don’t necessarily reflect your browsing audience. Consider a site that publishes Macintosh software—its browser usage pattern might actually show a fair number of users with OmniWeb, a Macintosh-specific browser that has a notable number of rabid followers. However, most sites probably wouldn’t consider OmniWeb something to even think about. Depending on your users, the types of browsers will vary. From statistics showing that surveyed sites favor a particular browser, it does not necessarily follow that your site will exhibit the same browser usage patterns—though it is pretty likely. Look at your own log files to determine browser usage patterns. If you are building an intranet site, you might not even have to look at your logs to understand what browsers are in use.

Rule: Beware of relying on published browser usage figures; track actual browser usage on your site.

Given a mix of browsers made up of the top two vendors with a smattering of other browsers, the question becomes how this information relates to site design and technology use. One possibility is to look at the various browsers and their capabilities, and then design for some common set of features.

Considering the variations among browsers, the common ground isn’t terribly advanced. The safest design platform for some still seems to be what Netscape 3.x supports, though more and more designers are embracing design for the 4.x and 5.x generation browsers and using CSS, Flash, and JavaScript more often.

The only problem with moving to the next generation is that the gap between what different generations of browsers support can be rather large. Because of this, sites (and users) significantly favor Internet Explorer over Netscape. (The installed base for IE browsers includes between 85% to 90% of all users at the time of this writing.) With the advent of Netscape’s Mozilla-based browsers (Netscape 6 and 7, and Mozilla 1.0), things may get more interesting because these browsers promise more support for standards-based Web page development than Netscape’s 4.x generation browsers. Even so, there will not be an overnight adoption of new, non-IE browsers around the Web. As the installed base increases, the longer it will take for consumers to embrace new technologies. Therefore, public sites should consider developing for at least one, if not two, generations prior to the current release of a browser. Even more than six years after the release of the 2.x generation browsers, some public sites still support that generation of browsers perfectly.

Tip: Consider developing for at least the last two, if not three, versions of a browser to account for slow upgrades.

It is easy to be overwhelmed with potential browser considerations, even if dealing just with the major browsers’ most recent versions. At the time of this writing, there were more than 20 major versions of the 4.x generation alone and more than 400 other different potential Netscape variations—primarily older versions or beta releases— floating around the Web, all with different capabilities and bugs. Of course, Netscape isn’t the only browser vendor, and there are slight upgrades made to Internet Explorer as well. The only point to make here is that browsers are moving targets. Every release has new features and different bugs. Just because someone is using a 4.x generation browser doesn’t guarantee a site will work the same under the same version on another platform or under an interim release. Sorry, but Netscape 4 or Internet Explorer 4 on Windows won’t work the same on Macintosh and NT. Even different interim releases like 4.03 and 4.5 may have significant differences in page rendering and bugs. Add in the continual use of half-done beta browsers, and you have a recipe for disaster. Pages often won’t render correctly, and errors will ensue. Users unfortunately won’t always place blame correctly. A small layout problem may be interpreted as the designer screwing up, not the browser vendor releasing a poorly tested product.

Rule: Users often don’t blame browsers for simple errors—they blame sites.

So what’s a developer to do? First, make sure you know what’s going on. Keep up with the latest news in browsers at sites like In particular, watch out for beta and interim releases. They are often the most dangerous, and users will not consider a 6.1 and 6.2 to be significantly different.

Tip: Be careful of features in beta and interim releases of browsers.

The next thing to consider is exactly what browsers you need to be aware of. This requires that you know the browsers used by the site’s audience, so look to your log files. In general, public sites should be as browser agnostic as possible, while private sites like intranets may be designed specifically for a single browser. Designers should be aware of the browser families listed in Table 3-2. Users interested in development for non-PC platforms may also find Palm (, television ( and, and cell phone simulators ( very useful tools for testing sites.

Given the number of browsers available and the significant difficulties involved in testing dozens of different configurations just to ensure a site renders under common viewing environments, some authors decide to write for a particular browser version or indicate that a particular vendor’s browser is the preferred viewing platform. Many sites that do this exhibit a browser badge on the site. If a particular browser is required, do not blatantly advertise it on the home page as many sites do. It simply announces that you practice exclusionary development.

Markup Languages

The foundation of any Web page is markup. Markup technologies such as HTML, XHTML, and XML define the structure and possible meaning of page content. Despite the common belief that markup languages define the look of Web pages, and the equally common use of HTML in this manner, page appearance should really be accomplished using other technologies, particularly style sheets.


HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the primary markup technology used in Web pages. Traditional HTML is defined by a SGML (Standardized General Markup Language) DTD (Document Type Definition—see the upcoming section “XML”) and comes in three primary versions (HTML 2, HTML 3.2, and HTML 4). HTML 4 comes in three varieties: transitional, strict, and frameset, with most document authors using the transitional variant. HTML 4.01 is the most current and final version of HTML.

While the various tags and rules of HTML are fairly well defined, most browser vendors provide extensions to the language beyond the W3C definition. Further, the browsers themselves do little to enforce the markup language rules, leading to sloppy usage of the technology. Also, while HTML should be used primarily for structuring a document, many developers use it to format the document for display as well. HTML’s formatting duties should eventually be completely supplanted by Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). However, even with adequate style sheet support in browsers, many developers continue to use HTML tables and even proprietary HTML tags in their page design. There are no plans for further development of HTML by the W3C and browser vendors, and developers are encouraged to embrace XHTML.

The HTML 4.0 specification is available at the following URL:


XHTML is a reformulation of HTML using XML (extensible Markup Language) rather than SGML. XHTML solves two primary problems with HTML. First, XHTML continues to force designers to separate the look of the document from its structure, by putting more emphasis on the use of style sheets. Second, XHTML brings much stricter enforcement of markup rules to Web pages. For example, XHTML documents must contain only lowercase tags, always have quotes on attributes, and basically follow all the rules as defined in the specification. Figure 3-3 shows an example document in HTML and its equivalent in XHTML.

A rigorous discussion of HTML and XHTML that covers all the requirements of XHTML can be found in Appendix C as well as in the companion book, HTML: The Complete Reference (

XHTML’s syntactical strictness is both its biggest benefit and biggest weakness. Well-formed pages may be easier to manipulate and exchange by a program but are harder to create for a human. Uptake of XHTML has been slow because of this strictness. XHTML’s extra rigor makes it less accessible than HTML, which is much more forgiving

to beginners. So, until more tools that generate correct XHTML become available, the language will probably continue its slow uptake in the Web community at large.

The following URLs provide important information about XHTML:

  • XHTML 1.0 Specification:
  • XHTML Basic Specification:
  • XHTML 1.1 Module XHTML:


    Extensible Markup Language (XML) is being touted by many as a revolutionary markup technology that will change the face of the Web. Yet, despite the hype, few understand exactly what XML actually is. In short, XML is a form of SGML modified for the Web;

    thus, it allows developers to define their own markup language. So, if you want to invent YML (Your Markup Language) with XML, you can. To do this we would define the rules of our invented language by writing a document type definition, or DTD. A DTD defines how a language can be used by indicating what elements can contain what other elements, the values of attributes, and so on. A simple DTD to define a grading language for elementary school children is defined here:

<!--Grades DTD-->
   <!ELEMENT  grades  (student+)>
   <!ELEMENT  student (course+)>
   <!ATTLIST  student  name  CDATA  #REQUIRED
              sex  (M|F)  #REQUIRED
              level  (1|2|3|4|5|6) #REQUIRED>
   <!ELEMENT   course EMPTY>
   <!ATTLIST  course title  CDATA  #REQUIRED
              grade  (PASS|FAIL) #REQUIRED>

This DTD file named grades.dtd would be referenced by an XML file such as the one shown here:

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <!DOCTYPE GRADES SYSTEM "grades.dtd">
   <!-- the document instance -->
   <student name="Thomas" sex="M" level="3">
      <course title="Math" grade="PASS" />
      <course title="English"  grade="FAIL" />
   <student name="Sylvia" sex="F"  level="1">
      <course title="Math" grade="PASS" />
      <course title="Art" grade="PASS" />

The example would not only be syntactically checked, but we could check the validity of the document against the DTD, a process known as validation. Yet, regardless of correctness, without a defined presentation you will not see much of a result, as shown in Figure 3-4. Presentation will eventually be handled by applying style rules to the XML document using one of the technologies discussed in the next section.

Many readers may now be wondering about the value of developers defining their own individual markup languages. Why not just use XHTML or HTML? Wouldn’t inventing new languages be the equivalent of creating a markup Tower of Babel on the Internet? Maybe, or it just may enable a whole new range of possibilities for markup. So far, the negative impact of inventing too many custom XML-based languages has been limited, and most Web developers are content using a commonly defined language like XHTML, WML (Wireless Markup Language), SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics), and numerous other XML-based languages. The precision and self-description properties of XML documents should enable a new class of Web technologies called Web Services that really could change the Web by allowing sites and programs to talk with each other more easily.

Style Sheet Technologies

Markup languages like HTML do not excel at presentation. This is not a shortcoming of the technology, but simply that HTML was not designed for this task. In reality, the look of the page should be controlled by the design elements provided by CSS (Cascading Style Sheets). In some cases, particularly when using an XML language, markup transformation may also be required to create the appropriate presentation format, so XSL (eXtensible Style Language) will be used as well.


CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is used to specify the look of a Web page. This technology has been present at least partially in browsers as old as Internet Explorer 3.0, but it has long been overlooked in favor of HTML-based layout for a variety of reasons, including lack of consistent browser and tool support, as well as simple developer ignorance. With the rise of the 6.x generations of browsers, CSS is finally becoming a viable prospect for page layout.

CSS-based style sheets specify rules that define the presentation of a type of a type (for example, <h1>)—a group or, more correctly, class of tags—or a single tag as indicated by its id attribute. Style sheet rules can be used to define a variety of visual aspects of page objects, including color, size, and position. The various style rules can be combined depending on tag usage—thus the “cascading” moniker for the technology. An example of CSS in use is shown in Figure 3-5.

These URLs provide more information about CSS:

  • CSS1 Specification:
  • CSS2 Specification:


    XSL is another style sheet technology used on the Web. It is primarily used to style XML languages. This is usually accomplished through XSL Transformation (XSLT), which is often used to convert XML markup into other markup, often XHTML or HTML plus CSS. It is possible to also use XSL Formatting Objects to style content, but, so far, this does not seem to be a commonly employed aspect of XSL. Thus, when developers speak of XSL, they often are speaking of XSLT. The relationship is set on the second line in the grades.xml file. The grades.xsl file specifies the transformations that would result in the HTML output.

    Information about XSL can be found at these URLs:

    • XSL Transformations 1.0 Specification:
    • XSL Activity at W3C:


      Most Web browsers support either directly or through extension a variety of image formats, such as GIF, JPEG, Flash, and PNG. The image formats can be separated into two general categories: bitmap (or raster) images and vector images. Raster images describe each individual pixel and its color, while vector images describe an image generally as a collection of mathematical directions used to draw—or more precisely, render—the image. Regardless of storage format, all images become bitmaps onscreen.

      Some designers speak of the value of one general format over the other, but, in reality, both have their problems. Vector images tend to be compact in description and can be scaled mathematically, but they suffer in potential rendering time and realism. Bitmap images can be very detailed but do not scale up well and tend to be very large in terms of file size. We will examine the specific types of the images in the following sections.


      GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is a bitmap format that does not provide a great degree of compression or color support, being limited to 8-bit or 256 simultaneous colors. However, the GIF format is relatively versatile and supports transparency, animation, and interlacing. It is commonly used in Web pages for logos, graphical navigation elements, and photos that do not require high-quality reproduction.

      Information about the GIF Specification can be found at this URL:


      JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) images support up to 24-bit color and are well suited for reproduction of photographs. Despite being a raster format, JPEG images allow designers to balance file size with image quality and support an impressive lossy compression algorithm that can significantly shrink image size with little discernable quality loss to the casual viewer. JPEG images do support progressive loading, but are not quite as versatile as GIF images because they lack transparency and animation features.

      Information about JPEGs can be found at these URLs:

      ■ JPEG Activity at the W3C:

      ■ JPEG Specification:

      The JPEG 2000 standard aims to eliminate many of the problems with JPEG and provide an even greater degree of quality and compression than standard JPEG files. However, so far, JPEG 2000 is not available in Web browsers.


      PNG (Portable Network Graphics) images provide an advanced image format designed to replace GIF as the dominant form of graphics on the Web. PNG images provide three primary advantages over GIF: alpha transparency, which provides variable degrees of transparency (versus GIF, which has a single degree of transparency); gamma correction to help improve image brightness across systems; and improved interlacing and compression. While PNG provides numerous benefits, many of its advanced features are not properly implemented in the latest browsers, so the rush to embrace the format has yet to materialize.

      Information about PNG can be found at these URLs:


      Macromedia’s Flash is a vector image format that supports still images, animations, and complex interactivity using a built-in scripting language similar to JavaScript, called ActionScript. The format, defined in the form of an SWF file, is arguably the most popular multimedia format on the Web. It is used for implementation of navigation systems, animations, and presentations, as well as full-blown Web sites. The biggest complaint made about the format is that it is proprietary; thus, Macromedia has opened the format to the public, though it is not blessed by the W3C (which backs a rival standard called SVG). It could be further said that Flash, which was first popularized as an alternative to Macromedia’s complex and sometimes clunky CD-ROM development environment Director, has become amost exactly what it sought to augment.

      Information about Flash can be found at these URLs:

      • Macromedia’s Flash Homepage:
      • SWF File Format Page:


        SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) is an XML language for describing simple two- dimensional images. Because the language is XML based, scripting interaction is straightforward using standard JavaScript in conjunction with the Document Object Model. While the SVG format is an open standard, it has been slow to be adopted by the Web development community and will be unlikely to overtake Flash in the near term.

        Information about SVG can be found at these URLs:


VML (Vector Markup Language) is yet another vector image used in Web pages. It is relatively unnoticed by most Web developers, despite the fact that it has been natively supported in Microsoft Internet Explorer since the 5.0 version. It was briefly introduced to the W3C for standardization, but SVG is being pushed over VML, and Flash is currently the popular vector format for the masses. However, Microsoft-oriented developers should be well aware of this format, since it is found in pages exported from Microsoft products.

Information about VML can be found at these URLs:

  • W3C VML Note:

    Other Image Formats

    The previously discussed image formats are the primary standard for well-supported image formats on the Web. However, other images are supported in some browsers, and, in theory, the <img> tag does not discriminate among the type, of images included in a Web page. The most important other format is probably BMP, which is supported by Microsoft’s Internet Explorer. A variant called Wireless BMP (WBMP) is also noteworthy and is supported in some wireless browsers. Many browsers, particularly older browsers or those with a UNIX release, support Xbitmaps. Using plug-ins or helper applications, everything from PostScript files to TIFFs can be viewed in a browser.


A little animation can spice up a Web page a great deal. Animation on the Web is used for many things: active logos, animated icons, demonstrations, and short cartoons. There are a variety of animation technologies available to Web designers. Some of the most common animation approaches include animated GIFs, Flash and Shockwave, and JavaScript animations (also called DHTML). Other animation possibilities also exist: Java-based animations and older animation techniques such as “server push” are still possible. However, the field has narrowed significantly, and very few older or propriety animation formats are actually worth exploring.


Audio technologies on the Internet cover a lot of ground, from traditional download- and-play systems in a variety of formats such as WAV and MP3 to streaming audio, which attempts to play data as it is downloaded over a connection. Surprisingly, the most advanced technologies, and the most popular, may not be the best solution for Web sites. For example, MP3 files, while of high quality, tend to take too long to download, and streaming technologies might not provide reliable playback in all situations because of the unpredictable delivery conditions on the Internet. Fortunately, much has improved since the simple days of adding a WAV or MIDI file for background music, but there is still a long way to go before sounds will become commonplace, primarily because of the large size of audio files.

Audio files can be compressed to reduce the amount of data being sent. The software on the serving side compresses the data, which is decompressed and played back on the receiving end. The compression/decompression software is known together as a codec. Just like image formats, audio compression methods are either lossy or lossless. Typically, audio codecs are lossy because of size considerations.


The holy grail of Internet multimedia is certainly high-quality, 30-frames-per-second, real-time video. The main challenge to delivering video over the Internet is its extreme size. Digital video is measured by the number of frames per second of video and by the size and resolution of these frames. A 640 × 480 image with 24 bits color and a frame rate of 30 frames per second takes up a staggering 27MB per second—and that’s without sound. Add CD-quality audio (705,600 bits of data for each second of data; for stereo, double that amount to 1.4 Mbps) and the file size increases proportionately. Granted, these are uncompressed frames and audio, but the point is that a lot of compression as well as bandwidth is needed for high-quality, large-size video.

As with audio, numerous formats are supported for Web-based video, including AVI, QuickTime, MPEG, RealVideo, and ASF. Table 3-5 presents a brief overview of the various Web video formats.

Even with improvements in network and compression technology, audio and video services have a long way to go on the Web if they are to approach the quality and reliability that users are familiar with from radio and television. Until that time, developers should always proceed with caution with real time media technologies. Further, just because audio and video can be delivered over the Web doesn’t mean that it should be. Always pick the best media format for the message to be delivered and remember that if you have nothing to say, whether it is in Flash or not isn’t going to help. We now switch gears and turn our attention to the programming aspects of the Web medium.

Programming Technologies

Understanding the basic idea of adding programming to a site isn’t hard, but it’s easy to get overwhelmed by the number of technologies to choose from, particularly if you assume that each is very different. The reality is that Web programming technologies can be placed into two basic groups: client side and server-side. Client side technologies are those that are run on the client, generally within the context of the browser, though some technologies like Java applets or ActiveX controls may actually appear to run, or may truly run, beyond the browser, and Helper applications do so implicitly. Of course, programs can and do run instead on the server and thus are appropriately termed server-side programming. Table 3-6 presents the general programming choices available to Web developers.

The challenge of Web-based programming is making sure to choose the right technology for the job. More often than not, designers are quick to pick a favorite technology, whether it is JavaScript, ColdFusion, or ASP and use it in all situations. The reality is that each technology has its pros and cons. In general, client-side and server-side programming technologies have characteristics that make them complimentary rather than adversarial. For example, when adding a form to a Web site to collect data to save in a database, it is obvious that it would make sense to check the form on the client side to make sure that the user entered the correct information, since it would not force a network round-trip to the server just to check the input data. Client-side programming would make the form validation more responsive and frustrate the user less. On the other hand, putting the data in the database would be best handled by a server-side technology, given that the database would be located on the server side of the equation. Each general type of programming has its place, and a mixture is often the best solution.

Client Side

Helper applications Browser API programs —Netscape plug-ins —ActiveX Controls —Java applets Scripting languages —JavaScript —VBScript

Server Side

CGI scripts and programs Server API programs —Apache modules
—ISAPI extensions and filters —Java servlets —Active Server Pages (ASP/ASP.NET) —ColdFusion —PHP

Client-side Programming

The first group of programming facilities we discuss are client-side technologies. Client- side programming technologies run the gamut from simple helper applications— launched upon download of media types like Zip files or of Word documents—to scripts built in browser-based scripting languages, such as JavaScript.


One approach to client-side programming comes in the form of programmed solutions, like helper applications. In the early days of the Web, around the time of Mosaic or Netscape 1.x, browsers had limited functionality and support for media beyond HTML. If new media types or binary forms were encountered, they had to be passed to an external program called a “helper application.” Helper applications generally run outside the browser window. An example of a helper application would be a compression or archive tool like WinZip, which would be launched automatically when a compressed file was downloaded from the Web. Helpers are often problematic because they are not well integrated with the browser and lack methods to communicate back to the Web browser. Because the helper was not integrated within the Web browser, external media types and binaries could not be easily embedded within the Web page. Last, helper applications generally had to be downloaded and installed by the user, which kept many people from using them.

The idea of a helper application is rather simple: it is a program that the browser calls upon for help. Any program can be a helper application for a Web browser, assuming that a MIME type can be associated with the helper. When an object is delivered on the Web, HTTP header information is added to the object, indicating its type. This information is in the form of a MIME type. For example, every Acrobat file should have a content-type of application/pdf associated with it. When a browser receives a file with such a MIME type, it will look in its preferences to determine how to handle the file. These options may include saving the file to disk, deleting the file, or handing the file off to another program, such as a helper or browser plug-in. With MIME types and helpers, a developer can put Microsoft Word files on their Web site; users may be able to download them and read them automatically, assuming they have the appropriate helper application.

Oddly, helper applications are not used as much as they could be. Consider, for example, the use of HTML on an intranet. Within an organization, data may often be created in Microsoft Word or Excel format. While it is possible to easily translate such information into HTML, why would one want to? HTML is relatively expensive to create and, often difficult to update, and may limit the quality of the document’s presentation. The main reason that documents are put in HTML is that they can ubiquitously read, meaning we don’t have to rely on users having a particular application to read our document, other than a Web browser. However, in an intranet, this probably isn’t an issue. In fact, it might be easier to create helper mappings on every system within a corporation rather than to reformat documents in HTML.

Netscape Plug-Ins

Plug-ins were introduced by Netscape in Navigator 2 and have limited support in other browsers, like Opera or Internet Explorer. Internet Explorer favors ActiveX controls, which are described in the next section. Using plug-ins addresses the communication and integration issues that plagued helper applications. Recall that helper applications are not integrated into the design of a Web page, but rather appear in a separate window and may not be able to communicate well with the browser. However, plug-ins are components that run within the context of the browser itself and, thus, can easily be integrated into the design of a page and can communicate with the browser through technologies like JavaScript (which will be introduced in a moment).

The plug-in approach of extending a browser’s feature set has its drawbacks. Users must locate and download plug-ins, install them, and even restart their browsers. Many users find this rather complicated. Netscape 4 offers some installation relief with self-installing (somewhat) plug-ins and other features, but plug-ins remain troublesome. To further combat this problem, many of the most commonly requested plug-ins, such as Macromedia’s Flash, are included as a standard feature with Netscape browsers. The standard plug-ins are primarily geared towards media handling and include Macromedia Flash and Shockwave, Adobe Acrobat, and Real player (audio and video). If plug-ins are used, make sure to focus on the popular ones first, given the installation hassle you’ll put the user through.

Suggestion: Focus on using only the more popular plug-in technologies unless automatic installation can be performed.

Even if installation were not such a problem, plug-ins are not available on every machine. An executable program, or binary, must be created for each particular operating system; thus, most plug-ins work on Windows systems, though a few of the more popular ones have versions that work on Macintosh and UNIX systems as well.

The main benefit of plug-ins is that they can be well integrated into Web pages. They may be included by using the <embed> or <object> tags, though <embed> is nearly always favored. For example, to embed a short Flash movie called welcome.swf that can be viewed by a Flash player plug-in, you would use the following HTML fragment:

       <embed src="welcome.swf" quality="high"
              type="application/x-shockwave-flash" scale="exactfit"
              width="406" height="59" bgcolor="#FFFF00">   </embed>

The <embed> element displays the plug-in (in this case, a Flash animation) as part of the HTML document. Of course, always remember that the main downside of plug-ins is the barrier to entry they create because of installation and system requirements. If installation can be improved, designers will be able to rely on the technologies provided more and more.


ActiveX (, which is the Internet portion of the Component Object Model (COM), is Microsoft’s component technology for creating small components, or controls, within a Web page. ActiveX distributes these controls via the Internet, adding new functionality to Internet Explorer. Microsoft maintains that ActiveX controls are more similar to generalized components than to plug-ins because ActiveX controls can reside beyond the browser, even within container programs such as Microsoft Office. ActiveX controls are similar to Netscape plug-ins in that they are persistent and machine-specific. Although this makes resource use a problem, installation is not an issue: the components download and install automatically.

Security is a big concern for ActiveX controls. Because these small pieces of code potentially have full access to a user’s system, they could cause serious damage. This capability, combined with automatic installation, creates a serious problem with ActiveX. End users may be quick to click a button to install new functionality, only to have it do something malicious, like erase an important system file. The potentially unrestricted functionality of ActiveX controls creates a gaping security hole.


Certificates only provide some indication that the control creator is reputable; they do nothing to prevent a control from actually doing something malicious—that’s up to the user to prevent. Safe Web browsing should be practiced by accepting controls only from reputable sources.

Adding an ActiveX control to a Web page requires the use of the <object> tag. For example, this markup is used to add a Flash file to a page.

       <object classid="clsid:D27CDB6E-AE6D-llcf-96B8-444553540000"
               width="406" height="59">
            <param name="movie" value="welcome.swf" />
            <param name="quality" value="high" />
            <param name="scale" value="exactfit" />
            <strong>Sorry, no ActiveX in this browser!</strong> </object>

What appears in a browser with no ActiveX? Just a short message indicating the user doesn’t have ActiveX. The reality is that the page should allow alternative technologies, such as plug-ins using the <embed> tag or even images, before giving a failure message.

Suggestion: If ActiveX controls are used on a public site, make sure to provide alternatives for Netscape or other browsers.


The main downside of component technologies like Netscape plug-ins and Microsoft ActiveX controls is that they are fairly operating system specific. Not every user runs on Windows or even Macintosh, so how do you deal with such a heterogeneous world? One solution is to create a common environment and port it to all systems—this is the intent of Java.

Sun Microsystems’ Java technology ( is an attractive, revolutionary approach to cross-platform, Internet-based development. Java promises a platform-neutral development language, somewhat similar in syntax to C++, that allows programs to be written once and deployed on any machine, browser, or operating system that supports the Java virtual machine (JVM). Web pages use small Java programs, called applets, that are downloaded and run directly within a browser to provide new functionality.

Applets are written in the Java language and compiled to a machine-independent byte code in the form of a .class file, which is downloaded automatically to the Java- capable browser and run within the browser environment. But even with a fast processor, the end system may appear to run the byte code slowly compared to a natively compiled application because the byte code must be interpreted by the JVM. This leads to the common perception that Java is slow. The reality is that Java isn’t necessarily slow, but its interpretation can be. Even with recent Just-In-Time (JIT) compilers in newer browsers, Java often doesn’t deliver performance equal to natively compiled applications.

Rule: Consider end-user system performance carefully when using Java.

Even if compilation weren’t an issue, current Java applets generally aren’t persistent; they may have to be downloaded again and again. Java-enabled browsers act like thin-client applications because they add code only when they need it. In this sense, the browser doesn’t become bloated with added features, but expands and contracts upon use.

Adding a Java applet to a Web page is relatively easy and can be done using the <applet> or <object> tag, though <applet> is preferred for backward compatibility. If, for example, we had a .class file called helloworld, we might reference it with the following markup:

   <applet code="helloworld.class" height="50" width="175"> <h1>Hello World for you non-Java-aware browsers</h1> </applet>

In the preceding code, between <applet> and </applet> is an alternative rendering for browsers that do not support Java or that have Java support disabled.

Security in Java has been a serious concern from the outset. Because programs are downloaded and run automatically, a malicious program could be downloaded and run without the user being able to stop it. Under the first implementation of the technology, Java applets had little access to resources outside the browser’s environment. Within Web pages, applets can’t write to local disks or perform other potentially harmful functions. This framework has been referred to as the Java sandbox. Developers who want to provide Java functions outside of the sandbox must write Java applications that run as separate applications from browsers. Other Internet programming technologies (Netscape plug-ins and ActiveX) provide less safety from damaging programs.

The reality of Java, as far as a Web designer is concerned, is that it really isn’t useful on public sites. There are so many different Java Virtual Machines in browsers that the idea of “write once, run everywhere” has been turned into “write once, debug everywhere.” The major benefit of Java applets just isn’t there. Designers should need no proof other than the fact that major sites that relied on Java applets have in most cases long since removed them. However, within intranets or on the server side in the form of Java servlets, we have seen Java achieve significant success.


JavaScript, which is of no relation to Java other than in name, is the premiere client- side scripting language used in Web browsers. Originally developed by Netscape for Navigator 2.0, the language has grown significantly over the years and is supported by all major browsers in one form or another. For example, Microsoft, supports Jscript, which is their take on the JavaScript language. Standardization of the language came in the form of ECMAScript, but the name JavaScript continues to be used by most developers.

JavaScript is a loosely typed scripting language that has simple uses for tasks like form data validation or minor page embellishments, such as rollover buttons. The inclusion of JavaScript in an HTML page is primarily handled by the <script> tag. For example, in this short fragment,

       <h1>About to leave HTML</h1>
       <script type="text/javascript">
         alert("Hello from JavaScript!");
       <h1>Welcome back to HTML</h1>

we see a statement printed in an HTML document, then an alert dialog is created by JavaScript, and finally another HTML statement in executed. The interaction between HTML and JavaScript is significant, and mastery of markup is required to reap the most benefits from this technology. JavaScript will be presented in this book in small, hopefully palatable, doses to improve page usability. Some techniques for correct JavaScript use will also be presented. For an in-depth discussion, readers should see the links provided or the companion book, JavaScript: The Complete Reference.

Information about ECMAScript and JavaScript can be found at these URLs:

  • ECMAScript Spec:
  • Netscape JavaScript Information:
  • Microsoft Scripting Information:

    Document Object Model

    With the rise of the standardized document object model, or DOM, JavaScript is poised to become nearly as important as HTML or CSS for Web developers, because it will provide the ability to manipulate any aspect of an HTML document. In the past, page manipulations were possible using browser and document objects defined by each browser vendor. Browser differences made all but the simplest scripts difficult to implement. The W3C DOM specification promises to help ease cross-browser scripting because it specifies a language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, markup, and style of Web documents.

    Since the DOM is used via JavaScript to manipulate HTML documents, this usage is often referred to as dynamic HTML, or DHTML. However, the term really is deceptive and its usage is not encouraged. The DOM comes in two primary variants at the moment: DOM Level 1, which provides access and manipulation facilities for basic markup elements and bindings to manipulate HTML tags, and DOM Level 2, which extends the interface to allow manipulation of CSS properties and provides a richer event interface.

    Online information about the DOM can be found at these URLs:

 Server-Side Technologies

The Web server handles the server side of the Web communications medium, responding to the various HTTP requests made to it. Servers may directly return various file objects, such as HTML documents, images, multimedia files, scripts, or style sheets, or they may run executable programs, which return a similar result. In this sense, the Web server acts both as a file server and as an application server. We will survey the basic components of the server side here before addressing the network components of the medium.

Web Servers

Like the Web browser, the Web server frames the environment of each Web transaction. The term “Web server” is usually understood to mean both the hardware and software. The major issue with hardware is whether the Web server is capable of handling the memory, disk, and network input/output requirements resulting from site traffic. The interplay of operating systems, such as UNIX or Windows 2000, and Web server software also is closely related to performance, as is security.

From Apache to Zeus, all Web server software platforms handle basic HTTP transactions, but all tend to offer more than basic file serving facilities. Most Web server platforms provide basic security and authentication services, logging, and programming facilities. An in-depth discussion of the popular servers and their facilities is presented in Chapter 17; here, we will focus only on the programming aspects of site


The oldest of the server-side programming technologies, CGI (Common Gateway Interface) programs can be written in nearly any programming language, though commonly Perl is associated with CGI applications. CGI is not a language or program, but in fact just a way to program—unlike other server-side programming environments, which define both language and style. CGI defines the basic input and output methods for server-side programs launched by a Web server, as illustrated in Figure 3-12. While assumed by some to be slow and insecure, CGI is adequate for many Web development projects when correctly understood and used.

Online information about CGI can be found at these URLs:

  • CGI Overview and Documentation:
  • CGI Resource Index:

    Server-Side Scripting

    Server-side scripting technologies, such as Microsoft’s Active Server Pages (ASP) or Macromedia’s ColdFusion, allow dynamic pages to be created easily. All server-side scripting languages, including the popular ASP, ColdFusion, JSP, and PHP languages, work fairly similarly. The idea is that script templates that contain a combination of HTML and scripting language are executed server side to build a resulting Web page. Usually, some form of server engine intercepts page requests, and when files with certain extensions—such as .asp, .cfm, .jsp, .php, or .shtml—are encountered, the script elements in the page are replaced with the resulting markup output.

    Server-side scripting languages are often used to build dynamic pages from databases, personalize content for users, or generate reusable components in pages. The syntax for each language is different, and many developers are somewhat religious about the merits of one language over the next, but the fact of the matter is that none of them scales well for extremely high-volume sites. Such sites usually require server API programs, which are discussed next.

    Online information about server-side scripting can be found at these URLs:

    • ASP Information:
    • ColdFusion Information:
    • PHP Information:
    • JSP Information:

Server APIs

Server API (Application Programming Interfaces) programs are special server-side programs built to interact closely with the Web server. A simple way to think of server API programs is as plug-ins to a Web server. Common APIs include ISAPI for Microsoft’s IIS server, NSAPI for the Netscape/IPlanet/Sun server, Apache Modules for Apache, and Java servlets for Java-enabled Web servers. The benefit of server API programs is that their close interaction with the Web server generally translates into high performance. The downside, of course, is the complexity of writing such a program and the possibility that an errant server module may actually crash the entire server.

Information about server APIs can be found at these URLs:

Apache Module Information:

ISAPI Filters/Extension Information:

Java Servlet Information:

Network and Related Protocols

The underlying protocols of the Web include the TCP/IP suite of networking protocols. Not a single protocol but a group of protocols, TCP/IP is what makes all services on the Internet possible. Individually, IP (Internet Protocol) provides the basic addressing and routing information necessary to deliver data across the Internet. However, TCP (Transport Control Protocol) provides the facilities that make communications reliable, such as correction and retransmission. Together, in conjunction with the Domain Name Service (or DNS), which is the process of translating fully qualified domain names like into their underlying IP addresses (, we have the ability to build higher-level services, such as e-mail or Web sites, on the Internet. Knowledge of lower-level protocols may seem pointless to many Web designers, but it is particularly helpful to understand networking details when designing extremely scalable Web sites. However, regardless of site aims, the next protocol discussed should be understood by every Web designer.


  1. HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol) is the application-level protocol that handles the discussion between a user-agent, generally a Web browser, and a Web server. The protocol is simple and defines eight basic commands (GET, POST, HEAD, PUT, DELETE, OPTIONS, TRACE, and CONNECT) that can be made by a user-agent to request or manipulate data. Responses may contain both numeric and textual codes (for example, 404 Not Found) and associated data.

    The simplicity of the HTTP protocol is both a blessing and a curse. It is simple to implement, but its lack of state management and its performance problems plague Web developers. The HTTP 1.1 specification as defined in RFC 2616 addressed many of the performance problems, but state management still has to be resolved using cookies, hidden data variables, or extended URLs. An overview of HTTP can be found in Chapter 17, while Appendix G details its request and response format.

    Information about HTTP can be found at these URLs:

    W3C HTTP Activity:

    HTTP 1.1 Specification:


    MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), the unsung hero of Web protocols, is used by browsers to determine what kind of data they have received from a server. Specifically, an HTTP header called Content-type contains a MIME value, which is looked up by a browser to understand what type of data it is receiving and what to do with it. Servers append MIME types to HTTP headers either by generating them from a program or by mapping a file extension (for example, .html) to an appropriate MIME type (for example, text/html). MIME allows Web sites to deliver any type of data, not just the common Web formats like HTML.

    Information about MIME can be found at this URL:

    ■ MIME Specification:


    Addressing: URL/URI/URNs/URCs

    To request and link to Web pages, it is necessary to use an addressing scheme. Web users are familiar with URLs (Uniform Resource Locator), like, which specify protocol and location. In specifications, URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) is the more commonly accepted term for short names or address strings that refer to a resource on the Web. Yet, whatever the name, URI or URLs do not provide all that may be required on the Web in the future, since they specify only location. Uniform Resource Names (URNs) and Uniform Resource Characteristics (URCs) may eventually be implemented to provide non-location-dependent addressing and extra information about resources, respectively. However, resource characteristics are more commonly specified using a form of meta data, as described next.

    Online information about addressing can be found at this URL:
    ■ W3C Addressing Activity:

    Meta Data

    Meta data is defind as data about data. Web developers may be familiar with putting meta data in a Web page using the <meta> tag. Often, this is used to specify keywords and descriptions for search engines. For example,

           <meta name="keywords" content="robots,androids, bots">
           <meta name="description" content="Demo Company makes the best robots in the Solar System!">

    Meta data is also used in Web pages to control page characteristics, particularly those related to HTTP headers. For example,

            <meta http-equiv="Expires" content="Wed, 15 May 2002 08:21:57 GMT" />

    would set an expiration date for a Web page using the HTTP expires header.
    The key to meta data is having a consistent and descriptive enough vocabulary for describing data. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) provides a standard way for using XML to represent meta data in the form of statements about properties and relationships of items on the Web. However, RDF itself is just a framework and needs a vocabulary. A popular vocabulary called Dublin Core initially has started to gain some traction. However, at the time of this edition’s writing, the use of meta data vocabulary beyond the simple <meta> tag for keywords and descriptions is not common practice on the Web, though it is prevalent in many large sites and very common in large intranets.

    Online information about meta data can be found at these URLs:

    W3C RDF Information:

    Dublin Core Metadata Initiative:

    Web Services

    Finally, the latest wrinkle in the Web medium is the rise of Web Services. The basic concept of Web Services is that Web sites may interact directly with each other, exchanging information or even running programs remotely. Web Services allow for complex distributed applications to be built using the pieces of various Web sites. For example, imagine running a small travel site and offering flight, hotel, and car rental booking services directly from your site through a large travel partner’s Web site without the user being aware. Web Services would provide the facilities for your site to talk to others and seamlessly make such a service possible.

    The key to Web Services is the use of standardized message formats, typically specified in XML. A protocol called SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) appears to be the leading candidate for Web Services. However, others do exist, and Web Services are not prevalent enough yet to assume victory for SOAP. Beyond messaging protocols, Web Services also require a facility for service providers to describe their offered services, and for users to discover the services they require. So far, service description is being handled by a protocol called WSDL (Web Service Description Language), while service discovery is handled by UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration). As mentioned, these protocols may not necessarily become standard; but regardless of what protocol is adopted, Web Services will provide for a much richer Web experience, which is coming to be known as the semantic Web. Information about Web Services can be found at these URLs:

    ■ W3C Web Services Activity:

    ■ W3C Semantic Web Activity:

    A good portion of the activity in the Web Services space revolves around Microsoft’s .NET technology, which also provides SOAP as well as a sophisticated Web programming environment. However, what .NET actually means to Web Services and what it includes are still very fluid. The best source of information on the Microsoft variant of Web Services can be found at


    Understanding the various aspects of the Web medium is mandatory for aspiring Web designers. Even if the focus is only on front-end interface creation, designers should have at least passing knowledge of the various components of the Web sites, ranging from addressing systems to XML-based Web Services. While it might be said that architects often make lousy carpenters, it can also be assumed that they generally have some sense of the properties of the building materials their projects use, and so should Web architects. Some of these “building materials,” such as Web browsers, HTML/ XHTML, CSS, JavaScript, and media formats, should already be very familiar, while others, like XML and networking protocols, may seem of little use to visual designers. However, with the transition away from simple print-oriented Web design to more interactive software-focused Web sites, designers would be well advised to become more proficient in programming and networking technologies. The next chapter explores just how Web sites are built and provides a useful overview of the processes that can be employed to guide complex Web projects.

User-Centered Design

Web sites are often developed from one particular philosophical reference point. Sometimes this point of reference is content centered; other times, it is technology-centered. Even more frequently, it is graphics-centered. However, the real emphasis when building sites should always be the user. Keeping users in mind and always trying to meet their needs should be the key focus of user-centered design.

Understanding users needs isn’t easy. While users may share common capabilities such as memory or reaction time, each user is still a distinct individual. Sites should be built for common user capabilities, rather than for the extreme novice or power user. Sites should be accessible to all and be able to account for the differences exhibited by individuals. Building a usable Web site is challenging, since what is usable to one person may be problematic for another. The likelihood of building a user-centered site is greatly improved through user interviews, testing, or even iterative design. Always be wary, though, of falling into the “user trap.” While a site should always be built for users, the desires of the site’s creators must also be met, even though these may be somewhat at odds with the desires of the site’s users. The fine balance of power between user and designer is not always easily achieved.


Everyone has a vague idea of what it means for something to be usable. People will talk at length about how Web sites are supposedly user friendly, intuitive to use, or simply “usable.” What, exactly, does it mean for something to be usable? First, consider the concept of utility in connection with two e-commerce sites that sell books and offer the same basic features. Both allow the user to search or browse for books, read information on books, purchase books, and track their orders. If both sites have basically the same features, they have the same utility—meaning they can do the same thing. Given that the sites have a few basic functions, you may find it easier to perform the same task on one site than the other. In this case, we can say that one site is more usable (has greater utility) than the other. Unfortunately, it is difficult to agree on what is usable. Plenty of people have attempted to characterize what usability is. Consider the following definition adopted from an ISO standard definition of usability:

Definition: Usability is the extent to which a site can be used by a specified group of users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use.

Consider each piece of the definition. First, note that we should limit the group of users when talking about usability. Recall that usability will vary greatly depending on the user.

Next, usability should be related to a task. You should not consider a site to be usable in some general sense. Instead, discuss usability within the context of performing some task, such as finding a telephone number for contact, purchasing a product, and so on. Usability is then judged by the effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction the user experiences trying to achieve these goals.

Effectiveness describes whether or not users are able to actually achieve their goals. If users are unable to, or only partially able to, complete a task they set out to perform at a site, the site really isn’t usable. Next, usability is related to efficiency. If users make a great number of mistakes or have to do things in a roundabout way when they visit a site, the site isn’t terribly usable. Last, the user must be satisfied with the performance of the task.

Many other definitions of usability exist. Some usability professionals suggest that usability can be concretely defined. Maybe it could be computed as some combination of the completion time for a typical visit and the number of errors made during the visit. From the user’s point of view, that might not mean much. Users might just be concerned with how satisfied they were after performing a task. The following five ideas determine the usability of a site:

  • Learnability
  • Rememberability
  • Efficiency of use
  • Reliability in use
  • User satisfactionBy this definition, a site is usable if it is easy to learn, easy to remember how to use, efficient to use (doesn’t require a lot of work on the part of the user), reliable in that it works correctly and helps users perform tasks correctly, and results in the user being generally satisfied using the site. This still seems fuzzy in some ways, and conflicts arise easily in the usability area. For example, a site that is easily learnable by a novice user may be laborious to use for a power user. Because people are different and come with different levels of capabilities and Web knowledge, not everyone is going to agree on what is supposedly usable. A site that is easy to one user may be hard for another.Rule: There is no absolute description of what constitutes a usable site.

    Even without considering user differences, we may find that usability varies according to how a single user interacts with a site. Usability also often depends on the medium of consumption—textual content viewed on the screen may be more usable in a large size, but when it is consumed on paper, it might be better smaller. If you have tried to read large amounts of small-size content online, you know it can be difficult. People tend to find that it is much easier to read it on paper. Some experts have suggested that people read much slower onscreen and tend to scan more than read content online. In this case, the medium of consumption—screen or print—has affected the usability
    of the content. In the case of the Web, the medium, which includes networks, browsers, screen sizes, and technologies like HTML, often contributes in a large way to usability problems. Throughout this book, the mantra of “know thy medium” should be repeated over and over.

Rule: Usability depends on the medium of consumption.

What is considered usable often varies between sites. An entertainment site would have different usability constraints than a commercial one. Further, the user’s familiarity with a site—as well as how often the user accesses the site and for what purpose—will affect the site’s perceived user friendliness. Consider how people may feel about the usability of a site that they have never been to before and are only marginally interested in, as opposed to one that they frequently visit or must use. They may be much more forgiving of errors in the site they need to use or have come to use than in the one they are just casually interested in. In short, a “throwaway” single-time-visit site has different usability constraints than a site a user relies on day to day.

Rule: Usability depends on the type of site as well as the user’s familiarity with it.

This idea might seem a tad unusual, but it shouldn’t. People often come to  believe inefficient ways of doing things are perfectly acceptable. Be careful about getting too scientific when talking about usability (measuring page clicks, mouse travel, errors rates, and the like). How users “feel” about the experience when they come away—their satisfaction with the site or the task performed—is really the most important thing. For some people, how they feel may not always be logical or even totally related to what happened during the site visit. Consider how many people gain satisfaction from performing difficult tasks; they may feel that way about some sites as well. Also, people let organizations that they are familiar with outside the Web get away with things at their sites that a new company can’t, simply because they trust the name brand of the older firm. On the other hand, don’t assume that the occasionally illogical user can be used as an excuse to produce a site that is hard to use. A site that requires the user to learn a new way of doing things, is inflexible, results in errors, or just doesn’t work will generally result in poor user satisfaction. Improve usability and users will be happier.

Rule: Usability and user satisfaction are directly related.

To understand how to make something usable, you must understand users. The next few sections will discuss usability in light of user capabilities and tendencies. The conclusion of the chapter will revisit these subjects and present a few rules of thumb that can be applied during Web site design to improve a site’s usability.

Who Are Web Users?

Site designers often make the common mistake of oversimplifying or completely ignoring the capabilities and desires of users. In some cases, concerns about designing the site with a particular browser or bandwidth in mind replace any serious thought of the user. Don’t design your site for Netscape—design for people who happen to use the Netscape browser. Always remember the following very important Web design rule:

Rule: Browsers don’t use sites, people do.

Fortunately, most designers don’t go the extreme of completely forgetting the user, but often they do oversimplify who the site’s users are. Far too often, sites are built for some elusive stereotypical Web user—the modem user accessing via AOL, perhaps. This user is just a nameless person surfing the Internet to be enticed into visiting the site and performing whatever task the designer desires. The reality is that users are not automatons with the same capabilities and desires, but individuals with a wide range of physical capabilities, needs, wants, expectations, and goals. Real Web users have bad days or can’t always figure things out sometimes, just like the rest of us.

Suggestion: There are no generic people. Always try to envision a real person visiting your site.

While it may not be possible to create a perfect stereotypical user to design Web sites for, there are some general things that can be said about users. The first thing is to think about how today’s typical user interacts with a Web site. Until alternative browsing environments such as cell phones or PDAs become much more commonplace, a user of your site is almost certainly sitting at a desk or table with a computer. Users sit at most a few feet from a monitor and generally use a keyboard and a mouse to interact with a Web site shown on the monitor. Primarily, they are using their eyes to access the information on the screen, though sound may also come into play. The stimulus from the site is filtered, and choice items may be consumed or, more accurately, committed to short- or long-term memory. The information they consume then may cause them to react by, for instance, clicking a link or entering data into a form.

You can describe how people tend to react to the world around them, including Web sites, in the following way. First, they encounter some sensation that is stored in memory. Then they try to understand the sensation, which is filtered both consciously and unconsciously. Information from past experiences may be called into action, influencing how they perceive things and possibly helping them decide what to do. From this perception, they may perform an action—or possibly take no action—that will later result in more sensations to be interpreted.

Do not think that people can be simplified to a formula where a stimulus is provided that results in an action. People are more complicated than that. People are capable of learning things, and information they encounter is committed to memory that can be used to modify what they do. Further, people aren’t perfect. Problems may occur, such as not remembering things properly. Different people perceive stimuli differently. Not everyone sees color quite the same way, for instance. Despite its simplification, the model does force designers to consider how people interact with the world—which includes their Web site. Common user characteristics such as sensation and memory need to be well considered, at least in a general sense, when building sites.

Common User Characteristics

There are no generic people, but people tend to have similar physical characteristics. Most people tend see about the same, are capable of remembering things, and react to stimuli in about the same way. However, remember that people are individuals. There will be some users who will be able to see much better than others. There will be people who can memorize hundreds of links and be able to quickly filter them, and others who will be overwhelmed when presented with more than two choices. There will also be a few users who react much faster or much slower to information than the average user. However, as with all aspects of Web design, we should aim first for the common user and make sure to account for differences. Let’s first consider common user characteristics such as vision, memory, and stimulus reaction.


The first aspect to consider about users is how they receive information from a Web site. The primary way most users consume data from Web sites is visually. They look at a screen and consume information in the form of text, color, graphics, or animation. The user’s ability to see is obviously very important. Consider, for example, users with poor eyesight. Unless the text is very large and the contrast between foreground and background elements very distinct, they may not be able to effectively interact with the content of the site. Unfortunately, many sites seem to assume that users have nearly superhuman vision, as text is sized very small, or a minor degree of contrast is used between foreground and background elements. A simple example of some of contrast and sizing problems can be found at

In order to avoid troublesome color combinations, designers should be aware of how color is perceived by the human eye. Three factors affect how color is perceived:

  • Hue the degree to which a color is similar to the basic colors—red, green, and blue—or some combination of these colors.
  • Saturation the degree to which a color differs from achromatic (white, gray, or black).
  • Lightness the degree to which a color appears lighter or darker than another under the same viewing conditions.Users with vision that is somewhat color deficient are often unable to differentiate between colors of similar hue when those colors are of the same lightness and saturation. For example, someone with the most common color deficiency—red-green color blindness—has trouble distinguishing between red and green when the red and green are close in saturation and lightness. Such color vision issues can be troublesome when you consider the difficulty in distinguishing between red and green traffic lights. Does the color-deficient user really know when to stop or go? In the real world, probably so, since the red light is always the top light— but on the Web, things aren’t always so cut and dried. If links are similar in hue, lightness, and saturation, it might be difficult for someone to determine which links have been clicked and which have not.

    Web page designers can avoid vision issues for users if they follow a few simple rules. First, make sure not to use text or graphic combinations that have a similar hue. Instead of using light blue on dark blue, use blue on yellow or white instead.

    Suggestion: Avoid using text, graphics, and backgrounds of similar hue.

    It is possible to get in trouble when using colored text on backgrounds with similar saturation. For example, instead of using a grayish blue text on a rose color background, where both colors are close to achromatic gray, use white text on a rose background, or vice versa.

    Suggestion: Avoid combining text, graphics, and backgrounds of similar saturation.

    The most obvious problem is when contrast is not great enough. Designers need to consider that dark text on a dark background or bright text on a bright background just may not be readable on all monitors or by people with color or vision deficiency. Instead of using a light blue text on a pale yellow background, use blue text on a white background. Or, black text on a white background is always a safe bet. Yellow and black contrast very well, and, therefore, they are used on road signs that are very important to read. However, before changing your Web site to this color combination, consider that design shouldn’t be thrown completely out the window just because of usability concerns.

Time Elapsed

1.0 second

10 seconds

> 10 seconds

Probable User Reaction

When something reacts in around a second, there is no major potential for interrupt. The user is relatively engaged and not easily distracted from what is happening on the screen.

This is suggested to be the limit for keeping the user’s attention focused on the page. Some feedback showing that progress is being made is required, though browser feedback such as a progress bar may be adequate. However, do not be surprised if the user becomes bored and decides to move on to something else.

With a delay this long, the user may actually go about other business, look at sites in other windows, talk on the phone, and so on. If you want users to continue to pay attention, you will have to give them constant feedback about progress made and some sense of when the page will be finished (as when downloading software, the browser lets users know how much time is left to complete the download).

Rule: Keep contrast high. Avoid using text, graphics, and background of similar lightness.

A very important use of color in a Web page is link color. In general, you should really avoid modifying link colors in any way. However, if you do modify link colors, make sure to avoid using link state colors of similar hue, similar saturation, or similar lightness to the background or to one another. For example, avoid links that change from red to pink. For some reason, designers seem to favor such types of combinations. Instead, consider using links that change from dark blue to pink, similar to the normal link state. Be careful with the background color, as it may interfere with link readability. Because of this, white is a good background color. However, if a sacrifice has to be made with color contrast, make the visited state color the one with the contrast problem, since these are links the user would generally be less interested in.

Links, as well as normal text, often have problems with backgrounds. In particular, avoid patterned backgrounds with multiple hues, saturations, or levels of lightness.

Backgrounds like speckles or texture patterns tend to make poor backgrounds; instead, choose a subtle pattern or simple color.

Suggestion: Avoid using busy background tiles.

To make pages more readable and to deal with users who might have some color or vision deficiency, Web designers should make sure colors that are meant to distinguish items are significantly different in two areas (for example, hue and lightness). By following this rule, if the user is color deficient in one area (for example, red-green hue), he or she can still distinguish the item by another attribute, such as its lightness or saturation.

Rule: Make sure colors that are meant to distinguish items like links are significantly different in two ways, such as hue and lightness.


Memory is critical to a user being able to utilize a site. If users are unable to remember anything about a site as they browse it, they will become hopelessly lost, since they will not be able to recall if they have been someplace before. However, any user’s memory is far from perfect, and users don’t consciously spend time trying to memorize things. Users tend to always follow a simple rule: try to do minimal work for maximal gain. Simple human nature suggests that a user is not going to spend a great deal of time to figure something out unless there is a potentially good payoff.

Rule: Users try to maximize gain and minimize work.

Of course, what is considered a good payoff will vary from person to person. Some people like to solve complex puzzles just for personal satisfaction. For them, the payoff is an intense feeling of accomplishment from solving a problem. However, let’s assume that users are generally not going to exhibit such behavior; rather, they will only work hard if they know they need to or if there is a really good payoff that will result. If you want a blunt or somewhat negative way to remember this idea, just assume users are lazy! More general rules of thumb about how users tend to act will be presented later in the chapter. The previous rule is simply presented to tie in with a few ideas about memory.

Now, assuming users will not like or even avoid Web sites that require them to work too hard, forcing them to memorize things is not a good idea. To illustrate this idea in practice, consider the interface of an automated telephone banking system. When you call the bank, you are prompted for your account number and then read a list of items and corresponding keys to press—“Press 1 for balance, press 2 for transfer, press 3 for payments… .” If you encounter such a system and are unfamiliar with all the choices, using the system can be difficult. You may find that you will try to remember a choice presented in your mind until all the choices have been presented. If too many choices are presented, you might not be able to recall the range of choices or you might even forget which item you chose and have to listen to the choices again. Now, if the same information were presented on a small text menu, it would be much easier to find the item. You would just look over the list and pick the appropriate one. The voice example requires you to recall the choices, which is very difficult. In general, it is easier for users to recognize choices than to recall them. Because users who make mistakes will then tend to favor easier-to-use systems, we should always try to rely on recognition over recall.

Rule: Recognition is easier than recall.

There are plenty of examples of how recognition is easier than recall. Students generally consider a multiple-choice test to be easier than a fill-in test. You must study, of course, for each (assuming the tests are created correctly), but the amount of memorization required is much higher for the fill-in test. The multiple-choice test doesn’t require the depth of memory because you will see the answer and recognize it (hopefully) with only a minimal amount of “recall effort.”

It turns out that many of the rules and suggestions presented in this book ultimately are related to this idea of recognition being easier than recall. For example, consider the idea of modifying link color. If we turn off link coloring so that links never look visited, we are forcing users to recall whether they have selected a certain link before. If the links do change color, users simply have to recognize the different color to know they have been there before.

Rule: Do not make visited links the same style or color as unvisited ones.

Another important aspect of memory to consider is that it isn’t perfect. Users are not going to memorize things easily and often will have only partial memory or a flawed memory of something. Just as in real life, repetition will lead to improved memory. For example, frequent users or power users may actually rely on memorization of the location of objects on the screen, but most users will have only vague memories of how link choices or pages are organized. However, when people are memorizing things, it is known that image memory is one of our most robust forms of memory. It is far easier to retrieve pictures or even words or ideas that evoke pictures than it is to retrieve abstract ideas without visual cues from memory. It is often far easier to remember a person’s face than it is to remember the person’s name. Given that users will generally find it easier to remember visuals, it would be wise to make pages that should be remembered visually different from the rest. For example, in site navigation, a home page serves as a safe zone for a user. Using a distinct image or a different color is important in making the home page memorable. However, do not assume the user to have perfect memory—don’t make the home page only subtly different from the other pages or expect the user to notice or memorize text items.

Suggestion: Make pages that should be remembered visually different from the rest.

Another aspect of memory that is important to the usability of Web pages is the amount of information a person can recall from short-term memory. Let’s return to the automated phone banking system example. When users hear the choices, they have to memorize them. If too many choices are presented, they might forget an item. This is an example of short-term working memory. In a sense, we need a little scratch space in our brain to remember something for a few moments. This memory does not hold a great number of items and is highly volatile. Cognitive scientists have long been interested in short-term memory and have conducted many experiments where participants are presented random objects or words and asked to quickly look at them or to make choices from them to test short-term memory. What is found is that participants are able to recall a range of seven items, plus or minus two, from short-term memory. What this means is that when given five to nine items, the user will be able to recall all the items for a short period of time and have them equally present in mind for choosing among them.

The implication of users being able to remember quickly 7 (±2) items on Web design may or may not be profound. If you present a user with a set of links, shouldn’t you limit the choices to from five to nine? It would seem you should—if you want the user to choose from the choices “fairly.” For example, if you present a list of dozens of what may appear to be randomly ordered links to a user, you will find that the user will have a tough time picking from them. You may notice that users will tend to favor extremes. In practice, the author has seen this happen on Web sites. For example, a large music site faced a problem in that bands listed in the site having names beginning with A or Z had a much higher download rate than anything else. What was happening is that users had little knowledge of the bands, so they would scan the lists and— unless something jumped out at them—they tended to choose the first or last items in the list to see what happened. They really couldn’t remember all the names of the bands that were interesting as they went along—there were just too many of them. If you want users to easily choose from a list of things that are equally important, you should limit your set of choices to between five and nine items.

Suggestion: Limit groups of similar choices such as links to between five and nine items.

However, do not go overboard with the five to nine items idea. Some usability experts, in fact, believe this rule has no place on the Web. This seems unwarranted, given the support for the rule both from long-term human capabilities studies and from GUI practices, which tend not to put 100+ choices on a single screen. However, there is some merit to the idea of not putting too much stock in the 7 (±2) rule. Consider that some designers might be tempted to use this rule to suggest that pages should have only five to nine links on them. However, this could be rather limiting if you have a lot of content. Users can focus on items progressively. Consider, for example, being presented five to nine distinctly different clusters of links on a page. Maybe the clusters are labeled and colored so the user chooses a cluster after looking at each. Once in the cluster, there are five to nine links. In this sense, there might be as many as 81 links on a screen, and the user will still be able to use them easily. When looking at well-designed pages with numerous links, you hopefully will see fewer than 100 links and notice that the clustering used an organization method, such as alphabetical, to avoid memorization.

Memory rules of thumb can also be applied to clicks. It appears that users are
able to remember about three pages presented sequentially. Anything more than that and there tend to be gaps in memory. For example, as users click through dozens of pages, they will probably remember a variety of pages but not all sequentially. The memorable pages may be visually different enough to trigger recall. Usually, such distinguishable pages are termed landmarks—the most obvious landmark page in a site being, of course, the home page. However, if you want users to remember a path, they tend to remember only about three page views sequentially—and maybe fewer if the pages look nearly identical. Therefore, you should not expect a user to memorize a sequence or path longer than three items without repeated use. The number of markers showing location and path in today’s sites and the user’s continual reliance on the Back button and browser’s history mechanism demonstrate how tenuous sequential memory tends to be. Because of these memory constraints, we tend to see many sites trying to reach content within three clicks or complete transactions in as few screens as possible.

Suggestion: Aim for memorization of only three items or pages sequentially.

This is by no means a complete discussion of memory, but it does serve to remind Web designers that, in order to make a site easy to use, we need to limit the amount of memorization going on. The less effort the users expend trying to recall what sequence of buttons they pressed or what choices they may have seen, the better.

Response and Reaction Times

If you have watched people browse around Web sites, it is obvious that some people are faster than others. Some users appear to cut quickly through page content and make choices rapidly, and are frustrated with even the slightest download delay. Others struggle to keep up and seem to have the patience of Job when it comes to waiting for pages to load. However, over time you’ll come to find that people’s patience for Web page loading will go away, particularly as they become more frequent users. Consider, for example, how long it takes for users to become annoyed at an automated teller machine that has not returned their money to them. The entire transaction may only take a few seconds, but customers are quickly annoyed. But when automated tellers first came out, a wait of even 30 seconds to a minute seemed tolerable compared to waiting in a long bank line.

Tip: Users tend to be more patient with something they are unfamiliar with or that is a novelty.

We see this novelty/patience dynamic on the Web all the time. Sites that could be considered single-visit sites, like movie promotion sites or designer portfolios, get away with huge download times. These sites could be termed single-visit or “throwaway” sites, since the user is unlikely to return. Splash pages, excessive animations, and long downloads are less annoying to a user who hasn’t seen them before, but patience wears thin on return visitation. Consider that even when a splash page has a “skip intro” button, a return visitor will still be frustrated with having to even make such a choice. The very fast loading design of successful, heavily frequented sites, such as portals or e-commerce sites, shows that patience wears thin. The needs and desires of the first-time visitor, who in some sense could be considered a novice user of the site, are different than the frequent or expert user of a site. However, users do not have infinite patience, and they are getting more and more impatient as they get used to what facilities the Web, or a particular site, provides. In general, we find the following rule to hold true:

Rule: The amount of time a user will wait is proportional to the payoff

The better the payoff, the longer the user will wait. Users who get something for free or who are stealing some desirable piece of software or music seem to be willing to wait an eternity. Consider users who illegally download software, songs, and movies from the Internet with a modem. They’ll literally spend hours searching for and downloading songs when they could have gone out, worked at a near-minimum-wage job, and earned enough to purchase an entire CD in a similar period of time. Of course, this imbalance will certainly change with the increase in bandwidth—much to the annoyance of the music industry. But it remains true that if you are going to expect a user to wait for a page to load, there better be something useful there.

The amount of time users will wait will vary based on the individual user, his or her personality, and the potential benefit of waiting. However, there are some things we can say about response and reaction times for users in general.

Time Elapsed

0.1 second

Probable User Reaction

When something operates this fast or faster, it appears instantaneous or nearly instantaneous to the user. Unfortunately, due to bandwidth and technology constraints, few Web pages will exhibit this level of responsiveness in the near future.

Table 2-1. Response Time and User Reactions



When it comes to the Web, there is generally little chance of going too fast for the user. Most of the time, it takes more than a few seconds even on a broadband connection to download something. However, be careful once something like a Flash file is downloaded. If the user has a faster processor than you, the program may end up running much faster on their system than expected, so much so that the user might not be able to keep up. On occasion, you may notice how animations used in some Web pages appear to travel at a rate only a superhuman could read.

Tip: Be careful with overly fast response times of downloaded objects.

In most cases, a Web site will probably not outpace the user; in fact, it may be much too slow for the user’s liking. Because users may get impatient, you need to make sure that they are given some indication of the progress being made. The browser itself actually gives a great deal of feedback about the progress being made. When loading a page, a browser will generally convert a cursor to a wait indicator (such as an hour glass), spin or pulsate a logo (generally in the upper-right corner of the browser), provide a progress meter towards the bottom of the screen, and display messages about objects being loaded in the status bar at the bottom of the screen. The Web designer will design pages to provide even more feedback. For example, the designer may build pages so text loads first or pieces of the page are loaded one at a time. Often, designers will cut images up into multiple pieces, so the user will see a little bit loaded at a time. Also, designers often use images that load in a progressive fashion from an unclear one to a sharp one so that the user is able to get a general sense of a complete fuzzy picture early on and watch its loading progress, if necessary.

For page loads that only take 10–20 seconds, the feedback given by the browser and incremental loading of a page should be enough to let the user know something is going on. However, when loading takes longer, you should give the user more information. For example, many sites that use binary technologies like Flash use a special loading page complete with a status bar showing progress. Such progress meters can also be created using technologies like JavaScript. However, don’t bother with a progress bar or other forms of feedback unless load times are around 30 seconds or more. (With the proliferation of broadband Internet access, this time will certainly diminish; even now, many broadband users are likely to get impatient around 20 seconds or less, and in due time even 10 seconds may seem like a long wait.)

Rule: When response times such as page loads take more than 30 seconds, try to provide your own feedback to the user, such as a load-time progress bar.

If you are building a static site, there are some simple tricks to let the user know about a longer wait for an object. For a very large image download, besides interlacing the image or having it show up progressively sharper, it is also possible to use a trick with the <img> tag’s lowsrc attribute. You could load a low-resolution version of an image first, or even a graphic message stating the image is loading, like so:

   <img src="hirezpicture.jpg" lowsrc="lowrezpicture.jpg" height="1000"
   width="1000" />

Or, you might have a message display instead. Some designers have even experimented using the alt attribute of an image to show file size or a loading message, like so:

   <img src="hirezpicture.jpg" alt="Loading picture of Mars (800K)"
   height="1000" width="1000" />

Of course, it is probably better to reserve the alt text for its primary purpose— providing an alternative rendering for users without images. Another HTML or CSS trick that can be used to let a user know about a long download is to use a background image with a message on it that says a page is loading, which is eventually covered up by content that is being downloaded. Other forms of loading screens can be created in both JavaScript and Flash.

When attempting to create a site that appears responsive to a user, remember that time is what matters the most. How users actually perceive a page loading will not necessarily equate to the bytes delivered. A user who isn’t paying for bandwidth isn’t going to care if 1K or 100MB is delivered, as long as it appears fast to them.

Rule: Time matters more to a user than bytes delivered.

Because time is so important to a user, it is important to take advantage of every second. Consider that the general way users navigate the Web is to look at a page scan to find an appropriate link, click, and then wait for the page. Once the page loads, they then look at the page to find the next link or spend time consuming the content. Notice the time is split between user “think time” and download time. The reality is that for most users, the think time for navigation pages is pretty small compared to the wait time. For content pages, however, the user may spend a great deal of time looking at the page. One way to improve responsiveness is to take advantage of the thinking time by downloading information to be used later on. This is often called preloading or precaching. Assuming you are able to preload most or all of the next thing to be looked at by the user during the think time, the next page load time could be significantly reduced. Somewhat like the magician who has the result of a trick set up in advances, downloading during idle moments can produce a nearly mystical appearance of speed.

Suggestion: Improve Web page response time by taking advantage of user “think time” with preloading.

A variety of browser accelerator tools have been built in an attempt to improve Web responsiveness by preloading pages linked from the current page. The only problem with this approach is that many pages have so many outbound links that it is difficult for the browser to predict the page the user will load next. The best way to improve the odds of caching the correct “next page” is to look at the common paths users take through a site by examining a log file and then putting in code to preload pages along these paths. However, this just improves the odds. The only time you can really guarantee that preloading will improve things is when the user is navigating a linear progression of pages.

The responsiveness of a Web site is a key aspect of a user’s feeling of the site’s usability. Beyond loading of pages, consider that time is important to a user even after a page has loaded. For example, if a page loads quickly but users can’t figure out what is going on in the page within about ten seconds, they can become just as frustrated as waiting for a simple page to download. Aim for what might be called the “ten-second Web page.” A ten-second Web page is one where the user gets the gist of the page in about one minute and can decide after that whether to consume the content more seriously or not.

Tip: Aim for a ten-second limit for the user to determine the basic gist of a page’s content or purpose after loading.

Dealing with Stimulus

Users are constantly being bombarded by stimuli from our sites. The text, the links, the graphics, animation, even sound all create a cacophony of information that the user tries to distill meaning from. Because of the continual stimulation, we need to filter out some of the data, and we do this both unconsciously and consciously. Three primary ways it is thought that people filter sensation data include thresholds, something dubbed the “cocktail party effect,” and sensory adaptation.


Rather than deal with every minute change that happens, we tend to notice only something that exceeds a particular threshold. For example, if on a Web page an object moves very slowly—say a pixel every few seconds—we may not notice at first because the speed of its movement is below our absolute threshold. However, over time we may notice the movement. Thresholds are tough to predict. Depending on their psychological state, users may be able to detect something under normal conditions; but, if they are tired or distracted, they may not be able to notice the difference between two similar but different colors or fonts that have been used to separate navigation forms.

When designing pages, designers should always consider thresholds. Thresholds suggest making objects or pages noticeably different from each other so that users will be easily able to understand their difference. For example, consider if link and text color in a page are too similar. The user may have to carefully inspect underlined text to make sure that it is a link and not just underlined text, because text colors are only subtly different. In other words, they might not always be sure what’s a link and what isn’t without putting in at least some degree of effort. Designers should strive not to force the user to spend time and effort trying to interpret the differences between objects on a page, since it both is frustrating and takes time away from the main goal of getting the user to consume the content or perform a task. Consider the threshold effect when trying to differentiate objects on a page.

Suggestion: Make page elements obviously different if they are different.

Things need to be just different enough for the user to notice. If the designer is too subtle, however, the user may not be able to tell. And if you go overboard, the design may backfire. It would be easy enough to always put site buttons in bright colors and content in dark colors, but this could be annoying to the user. The next two ideas show how users tend to filter out information when being bombarded with excessive stimuli.

Cocktail Party Effect

The cocktail party effect describes how people are able to concentrate on important data when being bombarded by nonessential stimuli. People at a cocktail party can concentrate on their own conversation despite being in a room filled with numerous other conversations. Don’t dismiss the other conversations as background noise. If the listener stopped and focused on another conversation, he or she probably could hear certain parts of it. However, the threshold effect is also in play during a cocktail party. If the person you are trying to listen to speaks too softly, if the proximity of other conversations is too close, or if the volume of other conversations is too loud, the listener will be overwhelmed by the outside stimuli.

Web page designers should consider that, as in cocktail party conversations, the user might want to concentrate on only a small portion of the information on a page. The rest is background noise that has to be filtered out. If there is too much going on, users will not be able to effectively concentrate on what they want and become frustrated. Therefore, we should try to section things off just as in a cocktail party, so the user can effectively concentrate. A good site has lots of choices but provides the visitors the ability to focus on what they want to see. Toward this end, we might consider grouping similar items together and separating groups of items with a lot of white space. Also, within text, we might convey important points in a bullet list or a pull quote, or highlight them with a background color. Always strive to limit noise—namely, competing objects on a page. If you don’t, and the site is like the cocktail party that gets too loud, users won’t be able to filter out information that isn’t important to them.

Suggestion: Limit page noise and segment page objects so that they don’t compete so much visually that users are unable to focus on what they are interested in.

Thresholds and the cocktail party effect present a balance between having too little of a difference and too much. Don’t become so concerned with trying to get an absolutely perfect balance of stimuli—just try to get it about right. You may consider erring in favor of a little too much, since people are very adaptable, as shown by the next cognitive science idea.

Sensory Adaptation

Sensory adaptation occurs when users become so used to a particular stimulus that they no longer respond to it—at least not consciously. Think of the watch on your wrist. You probably don’t notice it normally. Take the watch and put it on your other wrist and you’ll notice it for a while, but eventually you’ll get used to it. That’s sensory adaptation. Life is filled with things that people adapt to: the ticking of an alarm clock, the clothes you wear, the loudness of the music coming from your car stereo, and so on. Life on the Web is no different. Users adapt to Web stimuli quickly. That continually animated GIF that grabbed the user’s attention once or twice quickly fades into the background.

Probably the most interesting sensory adaptation is the rise of so-called “banner blindness.” People are becoming so used to the shape and location of banners that they are just tuning them out. Experiments as well as click rate studies show that people don’t look at banners terribly attentively. Animation added to the mix improved things, but it, too, has succumbed to sensory adaptation. Rich banner ads complete with sound and complex interaction are being experimented with to see if they can regain user attention. And we have pop-ups that are quickly swatted away by users as fast as they spawn. The bottom line is that users will decide what they want to focus on. Designers may want users to focus on something such as a banner ad or a download button, but in order to grab their attention, they will have to continue coming up with new tricks as users adapt to stimuli over time.

Rule: Sensory adaptation does occur on the Web. If you want a user’s full attention, you’ll have to vary things significantly and often.

Sensory adaptation suggests that the numerous fonts, animations, and colored regions on a page may go unnoticed over time. This doesn’t mean that we should completely avoid using things to stimulate the user, but we should not be as reliant on them, since they lose strength with use. Sensory adaptation really suggests that, in order to get a user’s full attention, we have to “wake them up” with something different. A little bit of surprise can be useful to make the user pay attention. However, be careful with this idea. In general, users will want to peacefully go about their business and will expect pages to look and act consistently. We shouldn’t disturb them, but should let them focus on the task or content at hand. If you bombard the user all the time, they will feel uncomfortable because of the lack of consistency, and they may become so annoyed that they leave.

Movement Capabilities

Once the user has absorbed information they have been provided, they will eventually react to it and make some choice. While someday voice interfaces may become commonplace, today’s Web sites are generally manipulated using the keyboard or mouse. Therefore, we should always attempt to minimize user efforts using these devices. Few sites consider that users may prefer using the keyboard or arrow keys, instead of a mouse, to move through choices in a page. While many form pages are optimized for quick navigation via the keyboard, other pages may not be.

Rule: Try to optimize keyboard access for all pages in a site, not just form pages.

Consider also the work users perform moving their mouse around the screen. Moving the pointer around the screen takes effort, and a button or link press may take up to a few seconds if a user has to move a long distance or focus on clicking a very small button. In fact, the time it takes a user to press a button is governed by something called Fitt’s law (Fitts, 1954). Fitt’s law basically states that the smaller the button to press and the farther away it is, the longer it will take to perform the action. This seems logical, since users tend either to overshoot small click targets because they moved too fast or to take extra time to clock the button more carefully.

Fitt’s law would suggest that to improve speed of use and thus efficiency, we should first bring things closer together. First, we might consider reducing the amount of mouse travel between successive clicks. Notice how efficient a wizard-style interface is, since after clicking “Next” the successive “Next” button tends to be directly under or very close to the current mouse position. There is no reason we couldn’t apply this to navigation elements. Try to keep successively clicked buttons close together. Navigation bars tend to encourage following this plan, anyway.

Rule: Minimize mouse travel distance between successive choices.

However, with the Web, we can’t always be sure that the user will press another button within the page as their next choice. In fact, quite often the user may move to a browser button such as the Back button rather than rely on internal site navigation nearby. Given some users’ preference for the browser Back button, designers should try to minimize the mouse travel to the Back button. The question is, travel from where? We should assume that the user will probably hover over the navigation bar
or near the scroll bars most of the time. While we can’t decrease the distance from the scroll bars, which will tend to be far away from the Back button in the upper left of the screen, there is no reason that we should not consider putting primary navigation buttons on the left or top portions of the screen. Doing so will minimize the distance from a primary selection area and the heavily used Back button, thus reducing mouse travel and increasing the speed at which the site can be used.

Rule: Minimize mouse travel between primary page hover locations and the browser’s Back button.

Fitt’s law would also suggest that we make clicking targets larger, particularly if they are far away. Some designers find this design suggestion troublesome because it suggests making big huge buttons, which would take up a great deal of screen real estate as well as potentially making the site look like it was designed primarily for novice users. Big buttons also bring too much attention to the interface. However, buttons should be made big enough for users to mouse to them relatively quickly—and spaced out well enough so they are able to click them without accidentally click an adjacent choice.

Rule: Make clickable regions large enough for users to move to them quickly and press them accurately.

General user capabilities are not all that we need to consider when discussing what ideas affect usable Web design. We must also consider the world the user inhabits and the user’s general and unique characteristics and experiences.

The User’s World

People truly are the centers of their own universe, in the sense that they perceive everything initially from their own point of view. Consider the idea of how a user might perceive the Web site shown in Figure 2-4. The user lives in the real world.

Users are affected by their environment: the physical conditions of their location, the noise around them, the visual quality of the monitor they are using, and so on. From their world, they access your Web site via the medium of the Internet and the Web, which includes things like network connections, servers, browsers, and so on. Once on the Web, they navigate about and visit sites. If they decide to actually interact with a site, they finally begin to consume or react to the content presented.

The presentation and navigation layers in Figure 2-4 could be interchanged considering that a user’s ability to navigate Web space is greatly affected by the way it is presented.

Suggestion: Always remember that you need to bring a site into the user’s world, not the other way around.

The preceding suggestion is an important one. Designers will naturally believe that they have set the rules for their sites and that users are just visitors. While this may be true, users tend to interpret things from their own perspective. Each user will have his or her own opinions, capabilities, environment, and experiences, all of which will influence how the site is interpreted. A fine balance between what the user thinks and wants and what the designer thinks and wants has to be struck. This will be discussed in more depth later in this chapter.

User Environments

The user is heavily influenced by what could be called their environment of consumption. For example, consider a user in a public place such as an airport using a public Internet kiosk to remotely access their e-mail. The user is standing up—it might be crowded and noisy—waiting to dash off to the plane. Because of this environment, the user may not be tolerant of long waits, excessive menus, or anything that slows down the task at hand. Further, due to the noise, the user may not be able to always hear sound cues. Last, because the user is standing up, the amount of time they might spent during the whole online session will certainly be significantly less than a normal session at the office. When designing for users, always think about where the user is accessing the site from. Table 2-2 details some of the possibilities.

The environment will greatly affect the user’s view of what is “usable.” For example, color combinations that contrast acceptably indoors might be troublesome outdoors. Designers must take into account the environment of consumption.

Chapter 2: User-Centered Design



Home office or bedroom

Home living room


Generally computer-based access
Single user
Relatively quie
Should be primarily work or task focused, at least during primary work hours

Often high speed

Generally computer-based access Single user
Noise level variable, but often quiet Purpose may be work or play Access could be anytime

Speed of access varies dramatically from modem to high speed

Access may be from set-top box or video game console Distance from device may be farther
Use may be less input oriented (reduced typing)
Noise level variable

May be group-oriented access or single user Access probably more entertainment related Printing may not be an end result

General Types of Users

There are three levels into which users can be classified to reflect their knowledge of how to use a Web site: novices, intermediates, and experts or power users.

A novice user is one who may have little knowledge of a site or even of how the Web works. A novice user will need extra assistance and may prefer extra clicks with extra feedback to accomplish a simple task. An example of an interface tuned to novices would be a wizard that automates some common task.

At the other end, power users are those users who understand the Web or a site very well. Power users should be considered in two distinct categories: frequent and infrequent visitors to the site. A power user who frequently visits a site to utilize advanced features such as sophisticated searching, may directly form their own URLs, and memorize the position of objects within a page or the site. A power user who is an infrequent visitor to a site may not be familiar with the site’s structure but will expect certain facilities, such as search, to be available to navigate a site. Power users will need relatively little handholding and will desire to click less and consume more. Obviously, the distance between a power user and novice user is great. A site geared too much toward one audience or the other will certainly annoy—the power user if the site has been dumbed down, or the novice user if the site is geared mostly toward power users.

The third group of users, the infrequent intermediate user, is actually the largest category of users on the Web. Most users are infrequent intermediate users because they pretty much understand how the Web works, but may not know how to navigate a particular site in a very efficient manner. Infrequent intermediate users do not continually revisit the site; if they do, they will probably eventually become a power user. Because site usage tends to be dominated by intermediate users, you may consider designing the site for the capabilities of these users. However, doing so may lock out novice users and bore or restrict advanced users.

The best approach to building a site for basic user groups is to build a site that provides features that cater to all users. Software applications do this, so there is no reason a Web site cannot. A software application may provides keyboard shortcuts and other features, such as customizable interfaces, for power users while also providing icons and menu systems for intermediate and novice users. Help systems and wizards are other features mostly geared toward the novice user. A Web site could provide features like a clean URL system, advanced search facility, and personalization features for an advanced user. A site with consistent navigation bars that have button labels similar to other sites (About, Products, Careers, and so on) is very friendly to novice and intermediate users, and it can also have dynamically built “bread crumb”–style navigation lines, popular with advanced users. Last, a Web site could provide help systems, maps, and alternative forms of access such as simple text links for the novice.

Suggestion: Aim to create an adaptive Web site that meets the requirements of novices, intermediates, and advanced users.

In the perfect world, there is no reason that a Web site can’t be built to meet the needs of all general user groups. However, time and cost constraints may limit the number of features that can be added to some Web sites. In such cases, it is probably best to aim for the largest group of users: the intermediate. This may lock out some novice users unable to figure the site out. There is an argument to be made for aiming at the lowest common denominator in a user. The problem with this is that if you start building only for the complete novice, you can quickly alienate users who know what they are doing.

Suggestion: Design for the intermediate user if an adaptive Web interface is not possible.

Even if an adaptive interface is built, there is bound to be a user who doesn’t understand or like the site we have built.

Tip: Remember there will always be users who don’t like or get a site, no matter how good it is.

Users are individuals with different tastes and opinions. They will have different experiences, capabilities, personalities, age, gender issues, and cultural issues. Some individuals may have disabilities that prohibit them from using a Web site that most users find easy to use. Users bring what they know from the real world and from other Web sites to your site. They may expect to use symbols from the real world, such as those for navigation. However, they may also bring knowledge of how Web sites work that they gained from visits to many other sites. Knowledge of how traditional software applications work may also be brought into play. Remember, as mentioned early in the chapter, that users bring the site into their world—they don’t visit the universe of your Web site. Your site is just a speck in an overall universe of Web sites. In fact, it could be said that most of the time users are not at your site. Some call this the 99 percent rule, since 99 percent of the time, users are probably not using your site. You should, therefore, make sure that your site follows any conventions and meets expectations set up by other sites.

Rule: Users bring past experiences with the world, software, and the Web to your site. Make sure your site meets their expectations.

You need to make sure that your site acts like other sites or software users have used and meets their general expectations. Remember the rule of consistency: if you do things differently from how everybody else does, you can’t rely on a user’s past knowledge and you force the user to learn something new. Of course, the challenge with real users is that expectations will vary greatly based on their experience. However, try to understand that there are some common conventions from GUI design or Web sites that users are probably familiar with.

GUI Conventions

Graphical user interface (GUI) design has long followed a variety of standards developed by operating system vendors such as Microsoft and Apple, or industry groups like The Open Group ( These conventions are obvious in most software applications.

Notice that in the interface in Figrue 2-5 there are common menus like File, Edit, View, and Help. Many applications have these menus. These primary menus are always located at the top of the screen, and the Help menu is always the far-right menu. The Close box is always in the upper-right corner, and other window controls such as Minimize and Maximize are there as well. The primary toolbar in software applications tends to be at the top of the application, and the bottom of the screen is reserved for less important controls and status messages. The functions of the application can generally be performed in multiple ways, such as using push button icons, text menus, keyboard shortcuts, and wizards.

GUI conventions are very useful to know, particularly when designing forms and other interactive elements of a site. In later chapters on implementation, we’ll discuss the use of GUI widgets and the difference between Web and GUI interfaces. The Web has not been able to develop conventions that are as well understood as those for software applications. There are two main reasons for this. First, software applications are often defined significantly by the operating system they are written for. Microsoft has great influence on how applications written for Windows should work. Apple can dictate conventions for Macintosh software. Second, the ability to author and distribute software applications is restricted to a much smaller group of people than in Web design. Many Web designers lack any formal understanding of GUI conventions and may actually shun them in favor of artistic freedom. This struggle is fortunately changing, as the focus on user-oriented site design becomes more popular.

Web Conventions

While Web sites may not exactly follow GUI usability conventions, they do have a loose set of conventions. Straying from the way that most Web sites work is a dangerous idea. Unless you happen to be running an important day-to-day use site like an internal site, a heavily trafficked site like Amazon, or a portal like Yahoo!, you will probably not be able to introduce any conventions of your own. In fact, if users come to expect that a company logo in the upper left-hand corner of the screen will return them to the home page, you had better do this in your site. If you don’t do this, you may surprise the user, which could cause a negative reaction. Forcing the user to learn a new idea also could cause a negative feeling.

Rule: Do not stray from the common interface conventions established by heavily used sites.

The problem with Web conventions is that they are moving targets. New conventions may be invented and sweep across the Web like fads. For example, frames and splash pages used to be popular, but they have somewhat fallen out of favor. Conventions are not always well considered and may often have more to do with novelty than usability. However, this shouldn’t lead you to invent new conventions or avoid those that are current. The best way to keep up with current conventions is to simply browse the well-trafficked e-commerce and content sites often and look for common features. If users are exposed to features there, such as single-click ordering, it isn’t going to be difficult to explain to them how it works on your site. Don’t assume that everyone understands common conventions or that all users will be able to use current conventions. Some users will have special needs.


There is no way to account for all the small differences between people. In fact, we only aim to create sites that most people like. This may lead us to stereotype groups of users (like casual female surfers under 18, and so on), but this may be an approach we have to make. Yet, this does not mean that you should go out and build a site catering to the largest demographic group of users hitting your site. Try to please as many distinct groups as possible by making your site as accessible as possible. Don’t forget that some people may have difficulty if you assume that all users have perfect physical and technical capabilities.

Providing accessibility for people who may have deficiencies involving sight, hearing, or other physical capabilities isn’t just a nice idea anymore—it may actually be required for some organizations, particularly government agencies—and many companies could incur serious liability if they do not account for all users. For example, Section 508 of the 1986 Federal Rehabilitation Act requires that the federal government include solutions for employees with disabilities when awarding contract proposals. This would also eventually apply to systems such as intranets, extranets, and most likely public Web sites. Also, the 1992 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) states that firms with 15 or more employees provide reasonable accommodation for employees with disabilities. This could apply to intranets or extranet creation!

But making a Web site accessible is something that should be done, not because of some law or to avoid future litigation, but because doing so could result in a much better Web site for everyone. Very often, creating systems that are accessible to all users also creates benefits for all users, regardless of capability. For example, the so-called talking books, initially considered for the blind, fostered books on tape. Also consider that easy ramps to access buildings, and curb cutouts made for wheelchairs, make walking easier for all and tend to reduce the number of people falling flat on their face after crossing the street or severely twisting their ankles as they step off the curb.

The W3C ( has long advocated designing sites for maximum accessibility and promotes the Web Accessibility Initiative ( The WAI is concerned not only with creating sites that are accessible to people with disabilities, but also with making sites that are accessible by anyone who might be operating in a different environment than what a designer considers “normal.” Remember that users will not necessarily be using a fast connection and a large monitor like yours—or if you aren’t using a guides,fast connection with the latest and greatest, your users just might be! From the W3C you should always consider that users may have different operating constraints:

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

They may not be able to see, hear, or move easily, or may not be able to process some types of information easily (or even at all).

They may have difficulty reading or comprehending text because of language problems.

They may not be able to use a keyboard or mouse because of access method (such as a cell phone) or physical disability.

They may have a less-than-ideal access environment, such as a text-only screen, a small screen, a screen without color, or a slow Internet connection.

They may be accessing the site in a nonstandard environment where they may be affected by environmental factors—accessing the Web in a noisy cybercafe or as they drive a car, for instance.

They may have an older browser or a nonstandard browser or operating system or use an alternative form of user interface, such as voice access.

To deal with these issues, the W3C has issued a few suggestions to improve the accessibility of a site. These are summarized here:

  • Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content In other words, don’t rely solely on one form of communication. If you use picture buttons, provide text links. If audio is used, provide a text transcript of the message, and so on.
  • Don’t rely on color alone As discussed earlier in the chapter, not everyone will be able to view colors properly; so if color alone is used to convey information, such as what constitutes a link, people who cannot differentiate between certain colors and users with devices that have noncolor or nonvisual displays will not be able to figure out what is being presented. In general, you need to consider avoiding color combinations with similar hues or not enough contrast—particularly if they are likely to be viewed on monochrome displays or by people with different types of color vision deficits.
  • Use markup and style sheets, and do so properly Basically, make sure to use HTML for structure and CSS for presentation. Especially avoid using proprietary markup or presentation elements and avoid using technology that may not render the same way in different browsers.
    • Clarify natural language usage Make sure to define terms and use markup that indicates acroymns, definitions, quotations, and so on. In other words, use more logical markup. Further, make sure to clearly indicate the language being used in the document so that a browser may be able to switch to another language.
    • Create tables that transform gracefully In short, don’t use tables for layout— use them for presenting tabular data such as a spreadsheet. When tables are used, provide a clear caption, column headings, and other indicators of the meaning of cell contents.
    • Ensure that pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully This is a key idea discussed throughout the book. Basically, make sure that, if you are going to push the limit of design, any new technologies degrade gracefully under older browsers. For example, if you are relying on JavaScript, does the page still work without it on? Or at least evor gracefully?
    • Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes Make sure that moving, blinking, scrolling, or autoupdating objects or pages may be paused or stopped by the user. Besides being highly annoying, such distractions may actually make it difficult for users to focus on the site.
    • Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user interfaces If you use an interface within the page—for example, a Java applet that has its own internal interface— make sure that it, too, is accessible.
    • Design for device independence Try to build interfaces that can work in multiple devices, including those with different screen sizes, different viewing devices (cell phones as well as computers), and different manipulation devices (keyboard or mouse and keyboard). A particularly important consideration is just making sure that a site doesn’t rely solely on the mouse for navigation. Some users may find mouse movement difficult, and power users may actually prefer to use the keyboard for navigation.
    • Use interim solutions Because not all browsers will support the same technologies or standards completely, make sure to provide alternatives in the short term for noncompliant browsers.
    • Use W3C technologies and guidelines A somewhat self-evident but occasionally troublesome suggestion. Of course you should always try to follow the W3C guidelines, at least in spirit. However, be careful because many W3C guidelines are no more than proposed ideas, and browsers may lack significant or consistent support for a defined specification.
    • Provide context and orientation information In some sense, this just means to explain things or provide instructions for complex areas. You should design pages so that the meaning of links is clear through the use of ToolTips or scope notes. Further, forms should be designed that explain what is required. In the most basic way, a site should provide a help system.
    • Provide clear navigation mechanisms Basically, you should provide obvious navigation that is easy to understand and at a consistent location on the screen. Navigational aids such as search engines, site maps, and site indexes should also be provided.

      ■ Ensure that documents are clear and simple Yet another fairly obvious suggestion, but powerful nonetheless, is that simplicity will lead to greater accessibility. Given that not everyone will be able to read a language well, and usability is directly related to simplicity and consistency, try to make your documents simple.

      Building a Usable Site

      One of the keys to usable Web site development is to focus from the beginning on the users of the application. Remember that the user’s goal is not to use computers or to use your Web site. The user’s goal is to accomplish some task—purchase a product, find a bill payment center, register a complaint, and so on. You should try to make direct contact with users, and you must listen to them. Do not fall into the trap of thinking that you should just simply ask users what they want and then they will design your site for you. Users are not designers, and they make illogical or unrealistic requests. Because of this, you may be tempted to implement your own idea of a great site instead, without regard for user requests. However, the core idea of user-centered design is to always remember we are designing for users and not ourselves. Recall again the following very important Web design rules:

      Rule: You are NOT the user.

      Rule: Users are NOT designers.

      Although not all user input will be valuable, you should solicit information from your intended audience. You might consider interviewing them or giving a survey. Whatever you do, make sure to let users talk—and listen to them. While this may seem like JAD (Joint Application Design), which will be discussed in Chapter 4, we will not let users control the project; rather, they will be used as a source of ideas and a way to verify the execution of implemented features. From interviews, you should build a profile of stereotypical types of users. While this may seem to be a bad idea, consider that unless you have a very small audience, it is virtually impossible to build a site that will conform perfectly to all the preferences and task requirements that all possible users might have. Even if it were possible, it would be prohibitively expensive.

      From your discussions with users, build a prototype site, or just a set of simple diagrams on paper of how pages might look, and test it out with users. Make sure you test your site with users as early as possible in the development cycle so as not to build a site that users can’t figure out.

      Suggestion: Perform user testing early and often.

      There are many ways to verify usability. Tests might include

      • Casual observation of users
      • Surveys and interviews
      • Focus groups
        • Lab testing
        • Heuristic evaluations by developers or usability experts

          The results of the tests can include more quantitative measurements, such as the number of mistakes made during a task, the amount of mouse travel, the time it takes to perform a task, and so on. Tests will certainly also have to include qualitative measures of what feature the users liked or didn’t like. Before you don a white coat and rent lab time in a room with a two-way mirror to observe users, consider that formal testing may be overkill for most sites because of the cost and trouble of performing user tests in a formal fashion. Simple observations might do the trick, and opinions tend to be free from many users, though not always well founded. Collect a few users, or even your friends and neighbors, and sit them down at the site, and have them perform a few tasks. What’s interesting is that even an informal test will uncover the major problems with a site. However, informal tests only work if you let them. Designers seem far too proud of their sites and tend to act as co-pilots, showing a user the interesting aspects of a site. Talking too much during a test or guiding the user in any way keeps the user from making his or her own decisions and may actually steer the user away from mistakes.

          Suggestion: When performing even an informal usability test, avoid talking too much or guiding the user.

          Before running off to round up your friends to ask them what they think, first consider that far too often users will tell you what you want to hear or what they think they would do in certain situations. Or they simply may not want to admit their misunderstandings. It is better to observe users’ behavior than to rely on statements from them. However, if this is not possible, user input is acceptable, particularly if it is coupled with your own ad hoc usability analysis of a site. For instance, see whether the site follows the basic usability criteria that have been described in this chapter. Table 2-4 presents some guidelines you should use for judging a site.

          When evaluating a site, the rules of thumb here cover the basic aspects of usability. However, don’t assume just because the site meets most of these basic ideas that it is a good site. There are plenty of other ways for a site to fall down. For example, a site might not contain excellent content, its technology may be unreliable, or its graphics may be hideous to look at. Chapter 5 presents a more in-depth evaluation procedure that accounts for many other aspects of Web design. Remember that usability isn’t the only part of a positive Web experience.

          Usability Above All Else

          One problem with usability discussions is that it is easy to use usability concerns as a way to squash any other reasonable value. For example, some people have gone so far as to discuss how banner ads contribute to poor site usability because they are animated or increase the download time. However, consider that without the banner ads the site may not be economically viable. Pleasing graphics also are a common target for usability experts. It is interesting to note how boring most usability gurus’ sites actually are. While a site without much graphics may be usable, it might not do much to improve the brand identity of the organization running the site; in fact, without graphics, it may undermine brand identity built through other mediums. In some situations, it may be important to let the user endure a slightly longer download in order to see the corporate logo and new advertising look.

          Advanced technology also is a common enemy of good site usability. The truth is that while advanced technology may lock out some users, what is provided may be worth it. If we always designed for the lowest common denominator, we’d still have text-only Web pages. Don’t let usability completely stifle innovation. Usability is certainly very important, but there are often other considerations in a Web site’s design. Always remember that while we design for users, we are ultimately in control of our site.

          Suggestion: Do not use usability concerns as a way to avoid or eliminate visual, technological, or economic aspects of a site.

          Who’s in Control of the Experience?

          While it is true that we must give the people what they want, the masters of sites— meaning those who pay for them—may have desires that are not congruent with the desires of the site’s users. Do not become a slave to the user; remember that, in some sense, we are the masters of our own sites. How we want to treat our visitors is going to influence greatly how they feel about visiting our sites. Do you want to be a dictator, forcing the user to download certain plug-ins or resize a window? Conversely, you could be very democratic and let users pick their own path through your site. You may even allow users to modify content on the site or influence other users with indicators of link popularity. Last, you could aim for a middle ground and maybe act as a benevolent dictator, trying to help users along the way and giving them freedom within certain constraints, but always trying to guide them along.

          The issue of control during a site visit is somewhat of an unwritten contract between the site user and the developer. There is give and take in the relationship. While one of the main tenets of user-centered design is to put the user in control, users are imperfect like everyone else; if we give them complete control, they may make serious errors. Developers will want to keep users from making mistakes. However, the role of the benevolent dictator of the online experience is difficult. If you control things too much and users notice that they can’t resize their window or press certain buttons, they may become angry or frustrated. The key is to provide an illusion of control.

          Users should be able to do everything they need to do and nothing more. People need to feel like they are in control, but the control should have limits. Good interfaces exhibit this control. Consider, for example, the famous adventure game Myst. In Myst, the user can click objects onscreen and move in a direction simply by clicking in the appropriate direction. The interface is very simple and also very restrictive, though game players rarely notice this. In Myst, as in many well-designed video games, the progression is very controlled by the game designer, but the illusion of control is always preserved. A great Web site would follow the cue of a video game by trying to guide someone to a conclusion like purchasing a product, but in a manner that the user doesn’t really notice.

          The best example of the balance of control in an experience is probably Las Vegas. Casinos create a complete experience of visiting an ancient land, tropical paradise, or foreign country. A gimmick outside the casino like an exploding volcano or pirate battle attracts hordes of visitors. The intent is that some of these visitors will step onto the nearby conveyor belt to be quickly whisked into the casino. Inside the casino, temperature, lighting, and oxygen level are carefully controlled in an attempt to create a pleasant environment. The passage of time becomes difficult to determine because windows are few and tinted, and clocks are nonexistent. Assistance is plentiful from dealers and waitresses who will provide free drinks. If you get hungry, cheap food is nearby at an all-you-can-eat buffet. Want to stay overnight? Rooms are reasonably priced—and if you spend enough, they might even be free. But when you come to your senses as your wallet begins to empty, notice how difficult it is to find the exit!

        Good Las Vegas casinos practice the ultimate in experience design, second only (maybe) to Disneyland. The experience is always controlled; the point is to maximize the money the casino takes in. If you step out of line, get irate and loud when you lose, or try to do something to win back control in gambling by card counting, you’ll find that you are quickly escorted outside. The experience is fun and you can win, but the control is there and the house always has the edge. It’s pure math. If you plan to run a commercial site, learn from Las Vegas.


        Usability is about the aspects of a site that aren’t always noticeable but yet seriously influence the ease in which a user is able to accomplish a task using the site. Usable sites should be easy to learn, easy to use, and easy to remember. They should also result in few errors and be satisfying to the user. While some ways to improve usability, such as consistency and simplicity of design, are easy to formulate, sometimes it is difficult to satisfy the needs of every user. One reason is that users have different Web skill levels—novice, intermediate, and advanced (power users)—that will affect site usability. Another is that, while users generally share certain capabilities for accessing a site, such as vision and memory, users are also individuals, with unique characteristics, opinions, and experiences. They will also tend to view your site as a mere island in a big ocean of sites, and it is best to assume that they won’t want to learn your special rules.

        With so many varieties of users, you probably won’t be able to perfectly accommodate every user’s unique tastes and requirements. However, if you create an adaptive interface that can be used by the three broad categories of users and make sure to test your site carefully with real users, you stand a good chance of making a site that is usable by most users. Be particularly careful not to lock users out, particularly those who may be disabled or slightly different from your average user.

        Finally, a site should always be built to meet the needs of its users within the constraints or the desires of its creators. However, never use the quest for a usable site as a way to avoid difficult problems or as an excuse not to use graphics or technology or introduce new features that a user might want. An overzealous Web professional waving the usability banner can easily stifle innovation. Balance is always the key to great Web design.